In graph theory, a maximal independent set or maximal stable set is an independent set that is not a subset of any other independent set. That is, it is a set S such that every edge of the graph has at least one endpoint not in S and every vertex not in S has at least one neighbor in S. A maximal independent set is also a dominating set in the graph, and every dominating set that is independent must be maximal independent, so maximal independent sets are also called independent dominating sets.
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Vertex cover
In the mathematical discipline of graph theory, a vertex cover of a graph is a set of vertices such that each edge of the graph is incident to at least one vertex of the set. The problem of finding a minimum vertex cover is a classical optimization problem in computer science and is a typical example of an NP-hard optimization problem that has an approximation algorithm.
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Dominating set
In graph theory, a dominating set for a graph G = (V, E) is a subset D of V such that every vertex not in D is joined to at least one member of D by some edge. The domination number γ(G) is the number of vertices in a smallest dominating set for G. The dominating set problem concerns testing whether γ(G) ≤ K for a given graph G and input K; it is a classical NP-complete decision problem in computational complexity theory.
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Degree (graph theory)
In graph theory, the degree (or valency) of a vertex of a graph is the number of edges incident to the vertex, with loops counted twice. The degree of a vertex is denoted The maximum degree of a graph G, denoted by Δ(G), and the minimum degree of a graph, denoted by δ(G), are the maximum and minimum degree of its vertices. In the graph on the right, the maximum degree is 5 and the minimum degree is 0. In a regular graph, all degrees are the same, and so we can speak of the degree of the graph.
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Approximation algorithm
In computer science and operations research, approximation algorithms are algorithms used to find approximate solutions to optimization problems. Approximation algorithms are often associated with NP-hard problems; since it is unlikely that there can ever be efficient polynomial time exact algorithms solving NP-hard problems, one settles for polynomial time sub-optimal solutions.
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Graph (mathematics)
In mathematics, a graph is an abstract representation of a set of objects where some pairs of the objects are connected by links. The interconnected objects are represented by mathematical abstractions called vertices, and the links that connect some pairs of vertices are called edges. Typically, a graph is depicted in diagrammatic form as a set of dots for the vertices, joined by lines or curves for the edges. Graphs are one of the objects of study in discrete mathematics.
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K
K is the eleventh letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet.
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Bracket
Brackets are tall punctuation marks used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text. Used unqualified, brackets refer to different types of brackets in different parts of the world and in different contexts.
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