Concepts inFusion with stacks and accumulating parameters
Parameter
Parameter (from Ancient Greek παρά also “para” meaning “beside, subsidiary” and μέτρον also “metron” meaning “measure”) can be interpreted in mathematics, logic, linguistics, environmental science and other disciplines. In its common meaning, the term is used to identify a characteristic, a feature, a measurable factor that can help in defining a particular system.
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XML transformation language
An XML transformation language is a programming language designed specifically to transform an input XML document into an output XML document which satisfies some specific goal. There are two special cases of transformation: XML to XML: the output document is an XML document. XML to Data: the output document is a byte stream.
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Modular arithmetic
In mathematics, modular arithmetic (sometimes called clock arithmetic) is a system of arithmetic for integers, where numbers "wrap around" after they reach a certain value—the modulus. The Swiss mathematician Leonhard Euler pioneered the modern approach to congruence in about 1750, when he explicitly introduced the idea of congruence modulo a number N. Modular arithmetic was further advanced by Carl Friedrich Gauss in his book Disquisitiones Arithmeticae, published in 1801.
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Class (computer programming)
In object-oriented programming, a class is a construct that is used to create instances of itself – referred to as class instances, class objects, instance objects or simply objects. A class defines constituent members which enable its instances to have state and behavior. Data field members (member variables or instance variables) enable a class instance to maintain state. Other kinds of members, especially methods, enable the behavior of a class instances.
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Closure (mathematics)
A set has closure under an operation if performance of that operation on members of the set always produces a member of the same set. For example, the real numbers are closed under subtraction, but the natural numbers are not: 3 and 8 are both natural numbers, but the result of 3 − 8 is not a natural number. Another example is the set containing only the number zero, which is a closed set under multiplication.
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Data transformation (statistics)
In statistics, data transformation refers to the application of a deterministic mathematical function to each point in a data set — that is, each data point zi is replaced with the transformed value yi = f(zi), where f is a function. Transforms are usually applied so that the data appear to more closely meet the assumptions of a statistical inference procedure that is to be applied, or to improve the interpretability or appearance of graphs.
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Nuclear fusion
Nuclear fusion is the process by which two or more atomic nuclei join together, or "fuse", to form a single heavier nucleus. This is usually accompanied by the release of large quantities of energy. Fusion is the process that powers active stars, the hydrogen bomb and some experimental devices examining fusion power for electrical generation. The fusion of two nuclei with lower masses than iron generally releases energy, while the fusion of nuclei heavier than iron absorbs energy.
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Behavior
Behavior or behaviour refers to the actions and mannerisms made by organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the physical environment. It is the response of the system or organism to various stimuli or inputs, whether internal or external, conscious or subconscious, overt or covert, and voluntary or involuntary.
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