Summation is the operation of adding a sequence of numbers; the result is their sum or total. If numbers are added sequentially from left to right, any intermediate result is a partial sum, prefix sum, or running total of the summation. The numbers to be summed (called addends, or sometimes summands) may be integers, rational numbers, real numbers, or complex numbers.
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Complex plane
In mathematics, the complex plane or z-plane is a geometric representation of the complex numbers established by the real axis and the orthogonal imaginary axis. It can be thought of as a modified Cartesian plane, with the real part of a complex number represented by a displacement along the x-axis, and the imaginary part by a displacement along the y-axis. The concept of the complex plane allows a geometric interpretation of complex numbers. Under addition, they add like vectors.
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Differential equation
A differential equation is a mathematical equation for an unknown function of one or several variables that relates the values of the function itself and its derivatives of various orders. Differential equations play a prominent role in engineering, physics, economics, and other disciplines.
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Numerical integration
In numerical analysis, numerical integration constitutes a broad family of algorithms for calculating the numerical value of a definite integral, and by extension, the term is also sometimes used to describe the numerical solution of differential equations. This article focuses on calculation of definite integrals. The term numerical quadrature (often abbreviated to quadrature) is more or less a synonym for numerical integration, especially as applied to one-dimensional integrals.
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Asymptotic expansion
In mathematics, an asymptotic expansion, asymptotic series or Poincaré expansion is a formal series of functions which has the property that truncating the series after a finite number of terms provides an approximation to a given function as the argument of the function tends towards a particular, often infinite, point.
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Real line
In mathematics, the real line, or real number line is the line whose points are the real numbers. That is, the real line is the set R of all real numbers, viewed as a geometric space, namely the Euclidean space of dimension one. It can be thought of as a vector space, a metric space, a topological space, a measure space, or a linear continuum. Just like the set of real numbers, the real line is usually denoted by the symbol R (or alternatively,, the letter “R” in blackboard bold).
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Airy function
In the physical sciences, the Airy function Ai(x) is a special function named after the British astronomer George Biddell Airy (1801–92). The function Ai(x) and the related function Bi(x), which is also called the Airy function, but sometimes referred to as the Bairy function, are solutions to the differential equation known as the Airy equation or the Stokes equation.
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Mathematical analysis
Mathematical analysis, which mathematicians refer to simply as analysis, is a branch of pure mathematics that includes the theories of differentiation, integration and measure, limits, infinite series, and analytic functions. These theories are often studied in the context of real numbers, complex numbers, and real and complex functions. Analysis may be conventionally distinguished from geometry.
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