A polygon mesh or unstructured grid is a collection of vertices, edges and faces that defines the shape of a polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics and solid modeling. The faces usually consist of triangles, quadrilaterals or other simple convex polygons, since this simplifies rendering, but may also be composed of more general concave polygons, or polygons with holes. The study of polygon meshes is a large sub-field of computer graphics and geometric modeling.
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Fluid
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress. Fluids are a subset of the phases of matter and include liquids, gases, plasmas and, to some extent, plastic solids. In common usage, "fluid" is often used as a synonym for "liquid", with no implication that gas could also be present. For example, "brake fluid" is hydraulic oil and will not perform its required function if there is gas in it.
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Deformation (engineering)
In materials science, deformation is a change in the shape or size of an object due to an applied force (the deformation energy in this case is transferred through work) or a change in temperature (the deformation energy in this case is transferred through heat). The first case can be a result of tensile (pulling) forces, compressive (pushing) forces, shear, bending or torsion (twisting).
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Semi-Lagrangian scheme
The Semi-Lagrangian scheme (SLS) is a numerical method that is widely used in Numerical Weather Prediction models for the integration of the equations governing atmospheric motion. A Lagrangian description of a system (such as the atmosphere) focuses on following individual air parcels along their trajectories as opposed to the Eulerian description, which considers the range of change of system variables fixed at a particular point in space.
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Fluid simulation
Fluid simulation is an increasingly popular tool in computer graphics for generating realistic animations of water, smoke, explosions, and related phenomena. Given some input configuration of fluid and scene geometry, a fluid simulator evolves the motion of the fluid forward in time, making use of the (possibly heavily simplified) Navier-Stokes equations which describe the physics of fluids.
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Advection
In chemistry, engineering and earth sciences, advection is a transport mechanism of a substance or conserved property by a fluid due to the fluid's bulk motion. An example of advection is the transport of pollutants or silt in a river by bulk water flow downstream. Another commonly advected quantity is energy or enthalpy. Here the fluid may be any material that contains thermal energy, such as water or air.
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Continuum mechanics
Continuum mechanics is a branch of mechanics that deals with the analysis of the kinematics and the mechanical behavior of materials modeled as a continuous mass rather than as discrete particles. The French mathematician Augustin Louis Cauchy was the first to formulate such models in the 19th century, but research in the area continues today.
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Interpolation
In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, interpolation is a method of constructing new data points within the range of a discrete set of known data points. In engineering and science, one often has a number of data points, obtained by sampling or experimentation, which represent the values of a function for a limited number of values of the independent variable. It is often required to interpolate (i.e.
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