In programming languages, name binding is the association of objects (data and/or code) with identifiers. An identifier bound to an object is said to reference that object. Machine languages have no built-in notion of identifiers, but name-object bindings as a service and notation for the programmer is implemented by programming languages.
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Value (computer science)
In computer science, a value is an expression which cannot be evaluated any further. The members of a type are the values of that type. For example, the expression "1 + 2" is not a value as it can be reduced to the expression "3". This expression cannot be reduced any further (and is a member of the type Nat) and therefore is a value. The "value of a variable" is given by the corresponding mapping in the environment.
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Type system
A type system associates a type with each computed value. By examining the flow of these values, a type system attempts to ensure or prove that no type errors can occur. The particular type system in question determines exactly what constitutes a type error, but in general the aim is to prevent operations expecting a certain kind of value being used with values for which that operation does not make sense; memory errors will also be prevented.
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Programming language
A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely. The earliest programming languages predate the invention of the computer, and were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos.
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Total order
In set theory, a total order, linear order, simple order, or (non-strict) ordering is a binary relation (here denoted by infix ≤) on some set X. The relation is transitive, antisymmetric, and total. A set paired with a total order is called a totally ordered set, a linearly ordered set, a simply ordered set, or a chain. If X is totally ordered under ≤, then the following statements hold for all a, b and c in X: If a ≤ b and b ≤ a then a = b; If a ≤ b and b ≤ c then a ≤ c; a ≤ b or b ≤ a .
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Real analysis
Real analysis (traditionally, the theory of functions of a real variable) is a branch of mathematical analysis dealing with the set of real numbers and functions of a real variable. In particular, it deals with the analytic properties of real functions and sequences, including convergence and limits of sequences of real numbers, the calculus of the real numbers, and continuity, smoothness and related properties of real-valued functions.
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Meta
Meta-, is a prefix used in English (and other Greek-owing languages) to indicate a concept which is an abstraction from another concept, used to complete or add to the latter. In epistemology, the prefix meta- is used to mean about (its own category). For example, metadata are data about data (who has produced them, when, what format the data are in and so on).
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Observation
Observation is either an activity of a living being, such as a human, consisting of receiving knowledge of the outside world through the senses, or the recording of data using scientific instruments. The term may also refer to any data collected during this activity. An observation can also be the way you look at things or when you look at something.
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