Concepts inThe price of privacy and the limits of LP decoding
Linear code
In coding theory, a linear code is an error-correcting code for which any linear combination of codewords is also a codeword. Linear codes are traditionally partitioned into block codes and convolutional codes, although turbo codes can be seen as a hybrid of these two types. Linear codes allow for more efficient encoding and decoding algorithms than other codes.
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Data mining
Data mining (the analysis step of the "Knowledge Discovery in Databases" process, or KDD), a relatively young and interdisciplinary field of computer science, is the process that results in the discovery of new patterns in large data sets. It utilizes methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
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Matrix (mathematics)
In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices, or less commonly matrixes) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions. The individual items in a matrix are called its elements or entries. An example of a matrix with six elements is Matrices of the same size can be added or subtracted element by element. The rule for matrix multiplication is more complicated, and two matrices can be multiplied only when the number of columns in the first equals the number of rows in the second.
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Compressed sensing
Compressed sensing, also known as compressive sensing, compressive sampling and sparse sampling, is a technique for finding sparse solutions to underdetermined linear systems. In electrical engineering, particularly in signal processing, compressed sensing is the process of acquiring and reconstructing a signal that is supposed to be sparse or compressible.
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Statistics
Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, analysis, and interpretation of data. It deals with all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the design of surveys and experiments. A statistician is someone who is particularly well versed in the ways of thinking necessary for the successful application of statistical analysis. Such people have often gained this experience through working in any of a wide number of fields.
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Big O notation
In mathematics, big O notation is used to describe the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity, usually in terms of simpler functions. It is a member of a larger family of notations that is called Landau notation, Bachmannâ€“Landau notation, or asymptotic notation. In computer science, big O notation is used to classify algorithms by how they respond (e.g. , in their processing time or working space requirements) to changes in input size.
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R (programming language)
R is an open source programming language and software environment for statistical computing and graphics. The R language is widely used among statisticians for developing statistical software and data analysis. R is an implementation of the S programming language combined with lexical scoping semantics inspired by Scheme. S was created by John Chambers while at Bell Labs.
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Probability
Probability is ordinarily used to describe an attitude of mind towards some proposition of whose truth we are not certain. The proposition of interest is usually of the form "Will a specific event occur?" The attitude of mind is of the form "How certain are we that the event will occur?" The certainty we adopt can be described in terms of a numerical measure and this number, between 0 and 1, we call probability.
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