In statistics and probability theory, median is described as the numerical value separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the observations from lowest value to highest value and picking the middle one. If there is an even number of observations, then there is no single middle value; the median is then usually defined to be the mean of the two middle values.
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Facility location
Facility location, also known as location analysis, is a branch of operations research and computational geometry concerning itself with mathematical modeling and solution of problems concerning optimal placement of facilities in order to minimize transportation costs, avoid placing hazardous materials near housing, outperform competitors' facilities, etc.
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Best, worst and average case
In computer science, best, worst and average cases of a given algorithm express what the resource usage is at least, at most and on average, respectively. Usually the resource being considered is running time, but it could also be memory or other resources. In real-time computing, the worst-case execution time is often of particular concern since it is important to know how much time might be needed in the worst case to guarantee that the algorithm will always finish on time.
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In computer science and operations research, approximation algorithms are algorithms used to find approximate solutions to optimization problems. Approximation algorithms are often associated with NP-hard problems; since it is unlikely that there can ever be efficient polynomial time exact algorithms solving NP-hard problems, one settles for polynomial time sub-optimal solutions.
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J
J is the tenth letter in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. Its normal name in English is jay /¿d¿e¿/ or jy /¿d¿a¿/; when used for the y sound, it may be called yod.
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Logarithm
The logarithm of a number is the exponent by which another fixed value, the base, has to be raised to produce that number. For example, the logarithm of 1000 to base 10 is 3, because 1000 is 10 to the power 3: 1000 = 10 = 10¿×¿10¿×¿10. More generally, if x = b, then y is the logarithm of x to base b, and is written logb(x), so log10(1000) = 3. Logarithms were introduced by John Napier in the early 17th century as a means to simplify calculations.
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Tree (graph theory)
In mathematics, more specifically graph theory, a tree is an undirected graph in which any two vertices are connected by exactly one simple path. In other words, any connected graph without cycles is a tree. A forest is a disjoint union of trees. The various kinds of data structures referred to as trees in computer science are equivalent to trees in graph theory, although such data structures are commonly rooted trees, and may have additional ordering of branches.
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