Concepts inUpright orientation of man-made objects
Orientation (geometry)
In geometry the orientation, angular position, or attitude of an object such as a line, plane or rigid body is part of the description of how it is placed in the space it is in. Namely, it is the imaginary rotation that is needed to move the object from a reference placement to its current placement. A rotation may not be enough to reach the current placement. It may be necessary to add an imaginary translation, called the object's location (or position, or linear position).
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Random forest
Random forest (or random forests) is an ensemble classifier that consists of many decision trees and outputs the class that is the mode of the classes output by individual trees. The algorithm for inducing a random forest was developed by Leo Breiman and Adele Cutler, and "Random Forests" is their trademark. The term came from random decision forests that was first proposed by Tin Kam Ho of Bell Labs in 1995.
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Test set
A test set is a set of data used in various areas of information science to assess the strength and utility of a predictive relationship. Test sets are used in artificial intelligence, machine learning, genetic programming, intelligent systems, and statistics. In all these fields, a test set has much the same role.
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Cross-validation (statistics)
Cross-validation, sometimes called rotation estimation, is a technique for assessing how the results of a statistical analysis will generalize to an independent data set. It is mainly used in settings where the goal is prediction, and one wants to estimate how accurately a predictive model will perform in practice.
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Training set
A training set is a set of data used in various areas of information science to discover potentially predictive relationships. Training sets are used in artificial intelligence, machine learning, genetic programming, intelligent systems, and statistics. In all these fields, a training set has much the same role and is often used in conjunction with a test set.
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Sphere
A sphere (from Greek ¿¿¿¿¿¿ ¿ sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space, such as the shape of a round ball. Like a circle, which is in two dimensions, a perfect sphere is completely symmetrical around its center, with all points on the surface lying the same distance r from the center point. This distance r is known as the "radius" of the sphere. The maximum straight distance through the sphere is known as the "diameter" of the sphere.
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Shape
The shape (Old English: gesceap, created thing) of an object located in some space is a geometrical description of the part of that space occupied by the object, as determined by its external boundary ¿ abstracting from location and orientation in space, size, and other properties such as colour, content, and material composition.
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Orientability
In mathematics, orientability is a property of surfaces in Euclidean space measuring whether it is possible to make a consistent choice of surface normal vector at every point. A choice of surface normal allows one to use the right-hand rule to define a "clockwise" direction of loops in the surface, as needed by Stokes' theorem for instance.
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