In molecular biology and genetics, mutations are changes in a genomic sequence: the DNA sequence of a cell's genome or the DNA or RNA sequence of a virus. These random sequences can be defined as sudden and spontaneous changes in the cell. Mutations are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication. They can also be induced by the organism itself, by cellular processes such as hypermutation.
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Function approximation
The need for function approximations arises in many branches of applied mathematics, and computer science in particular. In general, a function approximation problem asks us to select a function among a well-defined class that closely matches ("approximates") a target function in a task-specific way.
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Data mining
Data mining (the analysis step of the "Knowledge Discovery in Databases" process, or KDD), a relatively young and interdisciplinary field of computer science, is the process that results in the discovery of new patterns in large data sets. It utilizes methods at the intersection of artificial intelligence, machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
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Machine learning
Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, is a scientific discipline concerned with the design and development of algorithms that allow computers to evolve behaviors based on empirical data, such as from sensor data or databases. A learner can take advantage of examples (data) to capture characteristics of interest of their unknown underlying probability distribution. Data can be seen as examples that illustrate relations between observed variables.
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Robust statistics
Robust statistics provides an alternative approach to standard statistical methods, such as those for estimating location, scale and regression parameters. The motivation is to produce estimators that are not unduly affected by small departures from the model assumptions under which these standard methods are usually derived: the standard methods are comparatively badly affected.
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Cluster analysis
Cluster analysis or clustering is the task of assigning a set of objects into groups (called clusters) so that the objects in the same cluster are more similar (in some sense or another) to each other than to those in other clusters. Clustering is a main task of explorative data mining, and a common technique for statistical data analysis used in many fields, including machine learning, pattern recognition, image analysis, information retrieval, and bioinformatics.
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Independence (probability theory)
In probability theory, to say that two events are independent intuitively means that the occurrence of one event makes it neither more nor less probable that the other occurs. For example: The event of getting a 6 the first time a die is rolled and the event of getting a 6 the second time are independent. By contrast, the event of getting a 6 the first time a die is rolled and the event that the sum of the numbers seen on the first and second trials is 8 are not independent.
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Domain of a function
In mathematics, the domain of definition or simply the domain of a function is the set of "input" or argument values for which the function is defined. That is, the function provides an "output" or value for each member of the domain. For instance, the domain of cosine is the set of all real numbers, while the domain of the square root consists only of numbers greater than or equal to 0 (ignoring complex numbers in both cases).
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