Parallel computing is a form of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, operating on the principle that large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which are then solved concurrently ("in parallel"). There are several different forms of parallel computing: bit-level, instruction level, data, and task parallelism.
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FLOPS
In computing, FLOPS (or flops or flop/s, for floating-point operations per second) is a measure of a computer's performance, especially in fields of scientific calculations that make heavy use of floating-point calculations, similar to the older, simpler, instructions per second. Since the final S stands for "second", conservative speakers consider "FLOPS" as both the singular and plural of the term, although the singular "FLOP" is frequently encountered.
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Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software
Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software (ATLAS) is a software library for linear algebra. It provides a mature open source implementation of BLAS APIs for C and Fortran77. ATLAS is often recommended as a way to automatically generate an optimized BLAS library.
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Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm Listen/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ (originating from al-Khwārizmī, the famous mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī) is a step-by-step procedure for calculations. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning. More precisely, an algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function.
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Memory hierarchy
The term memory hierarchy is used in computer architecture when discussing performance issues in computer architectural design, algorithm predictions, and the lower level programming constructs such as involving locality of reference. A 'memory hierarchy' in computer storage distinguishes each level in the 'hierarchy' by response time. Since response time, complexity, and capacity are related, the levels may also be distinguished by the controlling technology.
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Matrix multiplication
In mathematics, matrix multiplication is a binary operation that takes a pair of matrices, and produces another matrix. This term may refer to a number of different ways to multiply matrices, but most commonly refers to the matrix product. This article will use the following notational conventions. Matrices are represented by capital letters in bold, vectors in lowercase bold, and entries of vectors and matrices are italic (since they are scalars).
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Fortran
Fortran (previously FORTRAN) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
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Matrix (mathematics)
In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices, or less commonly matrixes) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions. The individual items in a matrix are called its elements or entries. An example of a matrix with six elements is Matrices of the same size can be added or subtracted element by element. The rule for matrix multiplication is more complicated, and two matrices can be multiplied only when the number of columns in the first equals the number of rows in the second.
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