Out-of-core or External memory algorithms are algorithms that are designed to process data that is too large to fit into a computer's main memory at one time. Such algorithms must be optimized to efficiently fetch and access data stored in slow bulk memory such as hard drive or tape drives. A typical example is geographic information systems, especially digital elevation models, where the full data set easily exceeds several gigabytes or even terabytes of data.
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Positive-definite matrix
In linear algebra, a positive-definite matrix is a matrix that in many ways is analogous to a positive real number. The notion is closely related to a positive-definite symmetric bilinear form (or a sesquilinear form in the complex case). The proper definition of positive-definite is unambiguous for Hermitian matrices, but there is no agreement in the literature on how this should be extended for non-Hermitian matrices, if at all. (See the section Non-Hermitian matrices below.)
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Sparse matrix
In the subfield of numerical analysis, a sparse matrix is a matrix populated primarily with zeros. The term itself was coined by Harry M. Markowitz. Conceptually, sparsity corresponds to systems which are loosely coupled. Consider a line of balls connected by springs from one to the next; this is a sparse system. By contrast, if the same line of balls had springs connecting each ball to all other balls, the system would be represented by a dense matrix.
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Virtual memory
In computing, virtual memory is a memory management technique developed for multitasking kernels. This technique virtualizes a computer architecture's various forms of computer data storage, allowing a program to be designed as though there is only one kind of memory, "virtual" memory, which behaves like directly addressable read/write memory (RAM). Most modern operating systems that support virtual memory also run each process in its own dedicated address space.
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Input/output
In computing, input/output, or I/O, refers to the communication between an information processing system (such as a computer), and the outside world, possibly a human, or another information processing system. Inputs are the signals or data received by the system, and outputs are the signals or data sent from it. The term can also be used as part of an action; to "perform I/O" is to perform an input or output operation.
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Fortran
Fortran (previously FORTRAN) is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
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