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Computer data processing

Computer data processing is any process that a computer program does to enter data and summarise, analyse or otherwise convert data into usable information. The process may be automated and run on a computer. It involves recording, analysing, sorting, summarising, calculating, disseminating and storing data. Because data are most useful when well-presented and actually informative, data-processing systems are often referred to as information systems.
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Rule of inference

In logic, a rule of inference, inference rule, or transformation rule is the act of drawing a conclusion based on the form of premises interpreted as a function which takes premises, analyses their syntax, and returns a conclusion. For example, the rule of inference modus ponens takes two premises, one in the form of "If p then q" and another in the form of "p" and returns the conclusion "q".
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Soundness

In mathematical logic, a logical system has the soundness property if and only if its inference rules prove only formulas that are valid with respect to its semantics. In most cases, this comes down to its rules having the property of preserving truth, but this is not the case in general. The word derives from the Germanic 'Sund' as in Gesundheit, meaning health. Thus to say that an argument is sound means, following the etymology, to say that the argument is healthy.
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Tree (data structure)

In computer science, a tree is a widely used data structure that simulates a hierarchical tree structure with a set of linked nodes. Mathematically, it is an ordered directed tree, more specifically an arborescence: an acyclic connected graph where each node has zero or more children nodes and at most one parent node. Furthermore, the children of each node have a specific order.
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Semantics

Semantics (from Greek: s¿mantiká, neuter plural of s¿mantikós) is the study of meaning. It focuses on the relation between signifiers, such as words, phrases, signs and symbols, and what they stand for, their denotata. Linguistic semantics is the study of meaning that is used to understand human expression through language. Other forms of semantics include the semantics of programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
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Isomorphism

In abstract algebra, an isomorphism is a bijective homomorphism. Two mathematical structures are said to be isomorphic if there is an isomorphism between them. In category theory, an isomorphism is a morphism f: X ¿ Y in a category for which there exists an "inverse" f: Y ¿ X, with the property that both ff = idX and f f = idY.
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