In theoretical computer science and formal language theory, a regular language is a formal language that can be expressed using a regular expression. Note that the "regular expression" features provided with many programming languages are augmented with features that make them capable of recognizing languages that can not be expressed by the formal regular expressions (as formally defined below).
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Nested word
In computer science, more specifically in automata and formal language theory, nested words are a concept proposed by Alur and Madhusudan as a joint generalization of words, as traditionally used for modelling linearly ordered structures, and of ordered unranked trees, as traditionally used for modelling hierarchical structures. Finite-state acceptors for nested words, so-called nested word automata, then give a more expressive generalization of finite automata on words.
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Automata theory
In theoretical computer science, automata theory is the study of mathematical objects called abstract machines or automata and the computational problems that can be solved using them. Automata comes from the Greek word αὐτόματα meaning "self-acting". The figure at right illustrates a finite state machine, which belongs to one well-known variety of automaton. This automaton consists of states (represented in the figure by circles), and transitions (represented by arrows).
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Formal language
In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols. The alphabet of a formal language is the set of symbols, letters, or tokens from which the strings of the language may be formed; frequently it is required to be finite. The strings formed from this alphabet are called words, and the words that belong to a particular formal language are sometimes called well-formed words or well-formed formulas.
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Context-free language
In formal language theory, a context-free language is a language generated by some context-free grammar. The set of all context-free languages is identical to the set of languages accepted by pushdown automata.
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Finite-state machine
A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton, or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model used to design computer programs and digital logic circuits. It is conceived as an abstract machine that can be in one of a finite number of states. The machine is in only one state at a time; the state it is in at any given time is called the current state. It can change from one state to another when initiated by a triggering event or condition, this is called a transition.
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Concatenation
In computer programming, string concatenation is the operation of joining two character strings end-to-end. For example, the strings "snow" and "ball" may be concatenated to give "snowball". In many programming languages, string concatenation is a binary infix operator. For example, the following expression uses the "+" symbol as the concatenation operator to join 2 strings:, and has the value "Hello, World".
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Model checking
In computer science, model checking refers to the following problem: Given a model of a system, test automatically whether this model meets a given specification. Typically, the systems one has in mind are hardware or software systems, and the specification contains safety requirements such as the absence of deadlocks and similar critical states that can cause the system to crash. Model checking is a technique for automatically verifying correctness properties of finite-state systems.
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