In materials science, deformation is a change in the shape or size of an object due to an applied force (the deformation energy in this case is transferred through work) or a change in temperature (the deformation energy in this case is transferred through heat). The first case can be a result of tensile (pulling) forces, compressive (pushing) forces, shear, bending or torsion (twisting).
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Semantics
Semantics (from Greek: s¿mantiká, neuter plural of s¿mantikós) is the study of meaning. It focuses on the relation between signifiers, such as words, phrases, signs and symbols, and what they stand for, their denotata. Linguistic semantics is the study of meaning that is used to understand human expression through language. Other forms of semantics include the semantics of programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
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Shape
The shape (Old English: gesceap, created thing) of an object located in some space is a geometrical description of the part of that space occupied by the object, as determined by its external boundary ¿ abstracting from location and orientation in space, size, and other properties such as colour, content, and material composition.
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Motion (physics)
In physics, motion is a change in position of an object with respect to time. Motion is typically described in terms of velocity, acceleration, displacement, and time. Motion is observed by attaching a frame of reference to a body and measuring its change in position relative to another reference frame. A body which does not move is said to be at rest, motionless, immobile, stationary, or to have constant position.
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Euclidean space
In mathematics, Euclidean space is the Euclidean plane and three-dimensional space of Euclidean geometry, as well as the generalizations of these notions to higher dimensions. The term ¿Euclidean¿ distinguishes these spaces from the curved spaces of non-Euclidean geometry and Einstein's general theory of relativity, and is named for the Greek mathematician Euclid of Alexandria.
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Projection (linear algebra)
In linear algebra and functional analysis, a projection is a linear transformation P from a vector space to itself such that P = P. It leaves its image unchanged. Though abstract, this definition of "projection" formalizes and generalizes the idea of graphical projection. One can also consider the effect of a projection on a geometrical object by examining the effect of the projection on points in the object.
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Character (computing)
In computer and machine-based telecommunications terminology, a character is a unit of information that roughly corresponds to a grapheme, grapheme-like unit, or symbol, such as in an alphabet or syllabary in the written form of a natural language. Examples of characters include letters, numerical digits, and common punctuation marks (such as ". " or "-").
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