In logic, mathematics, and computer science, the arity Listen/¿ær¿ti/ of a function or operation is the number of arguments or operands that the function takes. The arity of a relation is the dimension of the domain in the corresponding Cartesian product. The term springs from such words as unary, binary, ternary, etc. The term "arity" is primarily used with reference to functions of the form f : V ¿ S, where V ¿ S, and S is some set.
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Central processing unit
The central processing unit (CPU, occasionally central processor unit) is the hardware within a computer system which carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. The CPU plays a role somewhat analogous to the brain in the computer. The term has been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s.
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Binary search algorithm
In computer science, a binary search or half-interval search algorithm finds the position of a specified value (the input "key") within a sorted array. In each step, the algorithm compares the input key value with the key value of the middle element of the array. If the keys match, then a matching element has been found so its index, or position, is returned.
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Scalar processor
Scalar processors represent the simplest class of computer processors. A scalar processor processes one datum at a time. , a scalar processor is classified as a SISD processor (Single Instructions, Single Data). In a vector processor, by contrast, a single instruction operates simultaneously on multiple data items. The difference is analogous to the difference between scalar and vector arithmetic.
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SIMD
Single instruction, multiple data (SIMD), is a class of parallel computers in Flynn's taxonomy. It describes computers with multiple processing elements that perform the same operation on multiple data simultaneously. Thus, such machines exploit data level parallelism.
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Iteration
Iteration means the act of repeating a process usually with the aim of approaching a desired goal or target or result. Each repetition of the process is also called an "iteration," and the results of one iteration are used as the starting point for the next iteration.
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Algorithmic efficiency
In computer science, efficiency is used to describe properties of an algorithm relating to how much of various types of resources it consumes. Algorithmic efficiency can be thought of as analogous to engineering productivity for a repeating or continuous process, where the goal is to reduce resource consumption, including time to completion, to some acceptable, optimal level.
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Locality of reference
In computer science, locality of reference, also known as the principle of locality, is the phenomenon of the same value or related storage locations being frequently accessed. There are two basic types of reference locality. Temporal locality refers to the reuse of specific data and/or resources within relatively small time durations. Spatial locality refers to the use of data elements within relatively close storage locations.
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