Concepts inA new perspective on implementation by voting trees
Perspective (graphical)
Perspective (from Latin perspicere, to see through) in the graphic arts, such as drawing, is an approximate representation, on a flat surface (such as paper), of an image as it is seen by the eye. The two most characteristic features of perspective are that objects are drawn: Smaller as their distance from the observer increases Foreshortened: the size of an object's dimensions along the line of sight are relatively shorter than dimensions across the line of sight
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Caterpillar tree
In graph theory, a caterpillar or caterpillar tree is a tree in which all the vertices of the caterpillar are within distance 1 of a central path. Caterpillars were first studied in a series of papers by Harary and Schwenk. The name was suggested by A. Hobbs. As Harary & Schwenk (1973) colorfully write, "A caterpillar is a tree which metamorphoses into a path when its cocoon of endpoints is removed."
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Degree (graph theory)
In graph theory, the degree (or valency) of a vertex of a graph is the number of edges incident to the vertex, with loops counted twice. The degree of a vertex is denoted The maximum degree of a graph G, denoted by ¿(G), and the minimum degree of a graph, denoted by ¿(G), are the maximum and minimum degree of its vertices. In the graph on the right, the maximum degree is 5 and the minimum degree is 0. In a regular graph, all degrees are the same, and so we can speak of the degree of the graph.
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Theoretical computer science
Theoretical computer science (TCS) is a division or subset of general computer science and mathematics which focuses on more abstract or mathematical aspects of computing. These divisions and subsets include analysis of algorithms and formal semantics of programming languages. Technically, there are hundreds of divisions and subsets besides these two.
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Tree (graph theory)
In mathematics, more specifically graph theory, a tree is an undirected graph in which any two vertices are connected by exactly one simple path. In other words, any connected graph without cycles is a tree. A forest is a disjoint union of trees. The various kinds of data structures referred to as trees in computer science are equivalent to trees in graph theory, although such data structures are commonly rooted trees, and may have additional ordering of branches.
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Surjective function
In mathematics, a function f from a set X to a set Y is surjective (or onto), or a surjection, if every element y in Y has a corresponding element x in X so that f(x) = y. Multiple elements of X might be turned into the same element of Y by applying f.
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