Routing is the process of selecting paths in a network along which to send network traffic. Routing is performed for many kinds of networks, including the telephone network, electronic data networks (such as the Internet), and transportation networks. This article is concerned primarily with routing in electronic data networks using packet switching technology.
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Directed acyclic graph
In mathematics and computer science, a directed acyclic graph, is a directed graph with no directed cycles. That is, it is formed by a collection of vertices and directed edges, each edge connecting one vertex to another, such that there is no way to start at some vertex v and follow a sequence of edges that eventually loops back to v again. DAGs may be used to model several different kinds of structure in mathematics and computer science.
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Tree (graph theory)
In mathematics, more specifically graph theory, a tree is an undirected graph in which any two vertices are connected by exactly one simple path. In other words, any connected graph without cycles is a tree. A forest is a disjoint union of trees. The various kinds of data structures referred to as trees in computer science are equivalent to trees in graph theory, although such data structures are commonly rooted trees, and may have additional ordering of branches.
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Directed graph
In mathematics, a directed graph or digraph is a graph, or set of nodes connected by edges, where the edges have a direction associated with them. In formal terms a digraph is a pair (sometimes) of: a set V, whose elements are called vertices or nodes, a set A of ordered pairs of vertices, called arcs, directed edges, or arrows (and sometimes simply edges with the corresponding set named E instead of A).
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Vertex (graph theory)
In graph theory, a vertex (plural vertices) or node is the fundamental unit of which graphs are formed: an undirected graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of edges (unordered pairs of vertices), while a directed graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of arcs (ordered pairs of vertices).
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In set theory, a total order, linear order, simple order, or (non-strict) ordering is a binary relation (here denoted by infix ¿) on some set X. The relation is transitive, antisymmetric, and total. A set paired with a total order is called a totally ordered set, a linearly ordered set, a simply ordered set, or a chain. If X is totally ordered under ¿, then the following statements hold for all a, b and c in X: If a ¿ b and b ¿ a then a = b; If a ¿ b and b ¿ c then a ¿ c; a ¿ b or b ¿ a .
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Graph (mathematics)
In mathematics, a graph is an abstract representation of a set of objects where some pairs of the objects are connected by links. The interconnected objects are represented by mathematical abstractions called vertices, and the links that connect some pairs of vertices are called edges. Typically, a graph is depicted in diagrammatic form as a set of dots for the vertices, joined by lines or curves for the edges. Graphs are one of the objects of study in discrete mathematics.
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