Concepts inLow viscosity flow simulations for animation
Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being deformed by either shear stress or tensile stress. In everyday terms (and for fluids only), viscosity is "thickness" or "internal friction". Thus, water is "thin", having a lower viscosity, while honey is "thick", having a higher viscosity. Put simply, the less viscous the fluid is, the greater its ease of movement (fluidity).
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Incompressible flow
In fluid mechanics or more generally continuum mechanics, incompressible flow refers to a flow in which the material density is constant within a fluid parcel ¿ an infinitesimal volume that moves with the velocity of the fluid. An equivalent statement implying incompressibility is, that the divergence of the fluid velocity is zero (see the derivation below, which illustrates why these conditions are equivalent). Incompressible flow does not imply that the fluid itself is incompressible.
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Turbulence
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic and stochastic property changes. This includes low momentum diffusion, high momentum convection, and rapid variation of pressure and velocity in space and time. Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman described turbulence as "the most important unsolved problem of classical physics. " Flow in which the kinetic energy dies out due to the action of fluid molecular viscosity is called laminar flow.
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Advection
In chemistry, engineering and earth sciences, advection is a transport mechanism of a substance or conserved property by a fluid due to the fluid's bulk motion. An example of advection is the transport of pollutants or silt in a river by bulk water flow downstream. Another commonly advected quantity is energy or enthalpy. Here the fluid may be any material that contains thermal energy, such as water or air.
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Fluid dynamics
In physics, fluid dynamics is a sub-discipline of fluid mechanics that deals with fluid flow¿the natural science of fluids in motion. It has several subdisciplines itself, including aerodynamics (the study of air and other gases in motion) and hydrodynamics (the study of liquids in motion).
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Multigrid method
Multigrid (MG) methods in numerical analysis are a group of algorithms for solving differential equations using a hierarchy of discretizations. They are an example of a class of techniques called multiresolution methods, very useful in (but not limited to) problems exhibiting multiple scales of behavior.
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Finite difference method
In mathematics, finite-difference methods are numerical methods for approximating the solutions to differential equations using finite difference equations to approximate derivatives.
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Pressure
Pressure is the force per unit area applied in a direction perpendicular to the surface of an object. Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the local atmospheric or ambient pressure.
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