Concepts inAmplifying lower bounds by means of self-reducibility
Upper and lower bounds
In mathematics, especially in order theory, an upper bound of a subset S of some partially ordered set (P, ≤) is an element of P which is greater than or equal to every element of S. The term lower bound is defined dually as an element of P which is less than or equal to every element of S. A set with an upper bound is said to be bounded from above by that bound, a set with a lower bound is said to be bounded from below by that bound.
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If and only if
↔ ⇔ ≡ Logical symbolsrepresenting iff In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if (shortened iff) is a biconditional logical connective between statements. In that it is biconditional, the connective can be likened to the standard material conditional ("only if," equal to "if ... then") combined with its reverse ("if"); hence the name. The result is that the truth of either one of the connected statements requires the truth of the other, i.e.
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Asymptotic analysis
In mathematical analysis, asymptotic analysis is a method of describing limiting behavior. The methodology has applications across science. Examples are in computer science in the analysis of algorithms, considering the performance of algorithms when applied to very large input datasets. the behavior of physical systems when they are very large. in accident analysis when identifying the causation of crash through count modeling with large number of crash counts in a given time and space.
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Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm Listen/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ (originating from al-Khwārizmī, the famous mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī) is a step-by-step procedure for calculations. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning. More precisely, an algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function.
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Counting
Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects.
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Random self-reducibility
Random self-reducibility (RSR) is the rule that a good algorithm for the average case implies a good algorithm for the worst case. RSR is the ability to solve all instances of a problem by solving a large fraction of the instances.
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Uniform polyhedron
A uniform polyhedron is a polyhedron which has regular polygons as faces and is vertex-transitive (transitive on its vertices, isogonal, i.e. there is an isometry mapping any vertex onto any other). It follows that all vertices are congruent, and the polyhedron has a high degree of reflectional and rotational symmetry.
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AC (complexity)
In circuit complexity, AC is a complexity class hierarchy. Each class, AC, consists of the languages recognized by Boolean circuits with depth and a polynomial number of unlimited-fanin AND and OR gates. The name "AC" was chosen by analogy to NC, with the "A" in the name standing for "alternating" and referring both to the alternation between the AND and OR gates in the circuits and to alternating Turing machines.
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