In computer science and operations research, approximation algorithms are algorithms used to find approximate solutions to optimization problems. Approximation algorithms are often associated with NP-hard problems; since it is unlikely that there can ever be efficient polynomial time exact algorithms solving NP-hard problems, one settles for polynomial time sub-optimal solutions.
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Big O notation
In mathematics, big O notation is used to describe the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity, usually in terms of simpler functions. It is a member of a larger family of notations that is called Landau notation, Bachmann–Landau notation, or asymptotic notation. In computer science, big O notation is used to classify algorithms by how they respond (e.g. , in their processing time or working space requirements) to changes in input size.
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Metric space
In mathematics, a metric space is a set where a notion of distance between elements of the set is defined. The metric space which most closely corresponds to our intuitive understanding of space is the 3-dimensional Euclidean space. In fact, the notion of "metric" is a generalization of the Euclidean metric arising from the four long-known properties of the Euclidean distance.
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Glossary of graph theory
Graph theory is a growing area in mathematical research, and has a large specialized vocabulary. Some authors use the same word with different meanings. Some authors use different words to mean the same thing. This page attempts to describe current usage.
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Vertex (graph theory)
In graph theory, a vertex (plural vertices) or node is the fundamental unit of which graphs are formed: an undirected graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of edges (unordered pairs of vertices), while a directed graph consists of a set of vertices and a set of arcs (ordered pairs of vertices).
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Square root
In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that y = a, or, in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or y × y) is a. For example, 4 is a square root of 16 because 4 = 16. Every non-negative real number a has a unique non-negative square root, called the principal square root, which is denoted by, where √ is called radical sign. For example, the principal square root of 9 is 3, denoted, because {{{1}}} and 3 is non-negative.
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Point (geometry)
In geometry, topology, and related branches of mathematics, a spatial point is a primitive notion upon which other concepts may be defined. In geometry, points are zero-dimensional; i.e. , they do not have volume, area, length, or any other higher-dimensional analogue. In branches of mathematics dealing with set theory, an element is sometimes referred to as a point.
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M
M is the thirteenth letter of the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is used to represent one thousand in Roman numerals.
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