Concepts inGenerating quadratic bilevel programming test problems
Problem solving
Problem solving is a mental process which is the concluding part of the larger problem process that includes problem finding and problem shaping where problem is defined as a state of desire for the reaching of a definite goal from a present condition that either is not directly moving toward the goal, is far from it or needs more complex logic for finding a missing description of conditions or steps toward the goal .
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Quadratic programming
Quadratic programming (QP) is a special type of mathematical optimization problem. It is the problem of optimizing (minimizing or maximizing) a quadratic function of several variables subject to linear constraints on these variables.
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Mathematical optimization
In mathematics, computer science, or management science, mathematical optimization (alternatively, optimization or mathematical programming) refers to the selection of a best element from some set of available alternatives. In the simplest case, an optimization problem consists of maximizing or minimizing a real function by systematically choosing input values from within an allowed set and computing the value of the function.
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Variable (mathematics)
In mathematics, a variable is a value that may change within the scope of a given problem or set of operations. In contrast, a constant is a value that remains unchanged, though often unknown or undetermined. The concepts of constants and variables are fundamental to many areas of mathematics and its applications. A "constant" in this context should not be confused with a mathematical constant which is a specific number independent of the scope of the given problem.
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Optimal substructure
In computer science, a problem is said to have optimal substructure if an optimal solution can be constructed efficiently from optimal solutions to its subproblems. This property is used to determine the usefulness of dynamic programming and greedy algorithms in a problem. Typically, a greedy algorithm is used to solve a problem with optimal substructure if it can be proved by induction that this is optimal at each step (Cormen et al. pp. 381–2).
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Requirement
In engineering, a requirement is a singular documented physical and functional need that a particular product or service must be or perform. It is most commonly used in a formal sense in systems engineering, software engineering, or enterprise engineering. It is a statement that identifies a necessary attribute, capability, characteristic, or quality of a system for it to have value and utility to a user.
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