Concepts inA generic account of continuation-passing styles
Metalanguage
Broadly, any metalanguage is language or symbols used when language itself is being discussed or examined. In logic and linguistics, a metalanguage is a language used to make statements about statements in another language. Expressions in a metalanguage are often distinguished from those in an object language by the use of italics, quotation marks, or writing on a separate line.
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Continuation-passing style
In functional programming, continuation-passing style (CPS) is a style of programming in which control is passed explicitly in the form of a continuation. Gerald Jay Sussman and Guy L. Steele, Jr. coined the phrase in AI Memo 349 (1975), which sets out the first version of the Scheme programming language. A function written in continuation-passing style takes as an extra argument: an explicit "continuation" i.e. a function of one argument.
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Type theory
In mathematics, logic and computer science, type theory is any of several formal systems that can serve as alternatives to naive set theory, or the study of such formalisms in general. In programming language theory, a branch of computer science, type theory can refer to the design, analysis and study of type systems, although some computer scientists limit the term's meaning to the study of abstract formalisms such as typed ¿-calculi.
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Evaluation strategy
In computer science, an evaluation strategy is a set of (usually deterministic) rules for evaluating expressions in a programming language. Emphasis is typically placed on functions or operators: an evaluation strategy defines when and in what order the arguments to a function are evaluated, when they are substituted into the function, and what form that substitution takes.
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Operational semantics
In computer science, operational semantics is a way to give meaning to computer programs in a mathematically rigorous way. Operational semantics are classified into two categories: structural operational semantics (or small-step semantics) formally describe how the individual steps of a computation take place in a computer-based system. By opposition natural semantics (or big-step semantics) describe how the overall results of the executions are obtained.
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Formal system
A formal system is loosely speaking, any well defined system of abstract thought, on the model of mathematics. Technically, Euclid's elements, with a model consisting of 23 definitions and 10 postulates/axioms followed by 13 books of theorems with proof, is often held to be the first formal system and displays the characteristic of a formal system.
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Universal algebra
Universal algebra (sometimes called general algebra) is the field of mathematics that studies algebraic structures themselves, not examples ("models") of algebraic structures. For instance, rather than take particular groups as the object of study, in universal algebra one takes "the theory of groups" as an object of study.
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Theorem
In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and previously accepted statements, such as axioms. The derivation of a theorem is often interpreted as a proof of the truth of the resulting expression, but different deductive systems can yield other interpretations, depending on the meanings of the derivation rules.
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