Concepts inTimed automata with observers under energy constraints
Timed automaton
In automata theory, a timed automaton is a finite automaton extended with a finite set of real-valued clocks. During a run of a timed automaton, clock values increase all with the same speed. Along the transitions of the automaton, clock values can be compared to integers. These comparisons form guards that may enable or disable transitions and by doing so constrain the possible behaviors of the automaton. Further, clocks can be reset. Timed automata are a sub-class of hybrid automata.
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Automaton
An automaton is a self-operating machine. The word is sometimes used to describe a robot, more specifically an autonomous robot. An alternative spelling, now obsolete, is automation.
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Energy
In physics, energy is an indirectly observed quantity. It is often understood as the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems. Since work is defined as a force acting through a distance (a length of space), energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert pulls or pushes against the basic forces of nature, along a path of a certain length. The total energy contained in an object is identified with its mass, and energy (like mass), cannot be created or destroyed.
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0 is both a number and the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals. It fulfills a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures. As a digit, 0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems. In the English language, 0 may be called zero, nought or (US) naught, nil, or "o". Informal or slang terms for zero include zilch and zip. Ought or aught have also been used historically.
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Execution (computing)
Execution in computer and software engineering is the process by which a computer or a virtual machine carries out the instructions of a computer program. The instructions in the program trigger sequences of simple actions on the executing machine. Those actions produce effects according to the semantics of the instructions in the program. Programs for a computer may execute in a batch process without human interaction, or a user may type commands in an interactive session of an interpreter.
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Infinity
Infinity refers to something without any limit, and is a concept relevant in a number of fields, predominantly mathematics and physics. Having a recognizable history in these disciplines reaching back into the time of ancient Greek civilization, the term in the English language derives from Latin infinitas, which is translated as "unboundedness". In mathematics, "infinity" is often treated as if it were a number but it is not the same sort of number as the real numbers.
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Reachability
In graph theory, reachability is the ability to get from one vertex in a directed graph to some other vertex. Note that reachability in undirected graphs is trivial ¿ it is sufficient to find the connected components in the graph, which can be done in linear time.
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