In telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, forward error correction (FEC) or channel coding is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the sender encodes their message in a redundant way by using an error-correcting code (ECC). The American mathematician Richard Hamming pioneered this field in the 1940s and invented the first error-correcting code in 1950: the Hamming (7,4) code.
more from Wikipedia

Error detection and correction

In information theory and coding theory with applications in computer science and telecommunication, error detection and correction or error control are techniques that enable reliable delivery of digital data over unreliable communication channels. Many communication channels are subject to channel noise, and thus errors may be introduced during transmission from the source to a receiver.
more from Wikipedia

Packet loss

Packet loss occurs when one or more packets of data travelling across a computer network fail to reach their destination. Packet loss is distinguished as one of the three main error types encountered in digital communications; the other two being bit error and spurious packets caused due to noise.
more from Wikipedia

Laplacian matrix

In the mathematical field of graph theory the Laplacian matrix, sometimes called admittance matrix or Kirchhoff matrix, is a matrix representation of a graph. Together with Kirchhoff's theorem it can be used to calculate the number of spanning trees for a given graph. The Laplacian matrix can be used to find many other properties of the graph; see spectral graph theory.
more from Wikipedia

Open source

In production and development, open source is a philosophy, or pragmatic methodology that promotes free redistribution and access to an end product's design and implementation details. Before the phrase open source became widely adopted, developers and producers used a variety of phrases to describe the concept; open source gained hold with the rise of the Internet, and the attendant need for massive retooling of the computing source code.
more from Wikipedia

Radix

In mathematical numeral systems, the radix or base is the number of unique digits, including zero, that a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. For example, for the decimal system (the most common system in use today) the radix is ten, because it uses the ten digits from 0 through 9. In any numeral system, the base is written as "10" in that base. In a base ten numeral system, "10" represents the number ten; in a base two system, "10" represents the number two.
more from Wikipedia

Multiclass classification

In machine learning, multiclass or multinomial classification is the problem of classifying instances into more than two classes. While some classification algorithms naturally permit the use of more than two classes, others are by nature binary algorithms; these can, however, be turned into multinomial classifiers by a variety of strategies. Among these strategies are the one-vs. -all (or one-vs.
more from Wikipedia