Information-based complexity (IBC) studies optimal algorithms and computational complexity for the continuous problems which arise in physical science, economics, engineering, and mathematical finance. IBC has studied such continuous problems as path integration, partial differential equations, systems of ordinary differential equations, nonlinear equations, integral equations, fixed points, and very high-dimensional integration.
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Programming paradigm
A programming paradigm is a fundamental style of computer programming. (Compare with a methodology, which is a style of solving specific software engineering problems. ) Paradigms differ in the concepts and abstractions used to represent the elements of a program (such as objects, functions, variables, constraints, etc. ) and the steps that compose a computation (assignment, evaluation, continuations, data flows, etc.).
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Information theory
Information theory is a branch of applied mathematics and electrical engineering involving the quantification of information. Information theory was developed by Claude E. Shannon to find fundamental limits on signal processing operations such as compressing data and on reliably storing and communicating data.
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Data set
A data set (or dataset) is a collection of data, usually presented in tabular form. Each column represents a particular variable. Each row corresponds to a given member of the data set in question. It lists values for each of the variables, such as height and weight of an object. Each value is known as a datum. The data set may comprise data for one or more members, corresponding to the number of rows.
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Data stream
In telecommunications and computing, a data stream is a sequence of digitally encoded coherent signals used to transmit or receive information that is in the process of being transmitted. In electronics and computer architecture, a data flow determines for which time which data item is scheduled to enter or leave which port of a systolic array, a Reconfigurable Data Path Array or similar pipe network, or other processing unit or block.
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