In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression of finite length constructed from variables and constants, using only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents. For example, x ¿ x/4 + 7 is a polynomial, but x ¿ 4/x + 7x is not, because its second term involves division by the variable x (4/x), and also because its third term contains an exponent that is not an integer (3/2).
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Tutte polynomial
The Tutte polynomial, also called the dichromate or the Tutte¿Whitney polynomial, is a polynomial in two variables which plays an important role in graph theory, a branch of mathematics and theoretical computer science. It is defined for every undirected graph and contains information about how the graph is connected. The importance of the Tutte polynomial comes from the information it contains about .
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Chromatic polynomial
The chromatic polynomial is a polynomial studied in algebraic graph theory, a branch of mathematics. It counts the number of graph colorings as a function of the number of colors and was originally defined by George David Birkhoff to attack the four color problem. It was generalised to the Tutte polynomial by H. Whitney and W. T. Tutte, linking it to the Potts model of statistical physics.
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Partition function (mathematics)
The partition function or configuration integral, as used in probability theory, information science and dynamical systems, is an abstraction of the definition of a partition function in statistical mechanics. It is a special case of a normalizing constant in probability theory, for the Boltzmann distribution.
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Potts model
In statistical mechanics, the Potts model, a generalization of the Ising model, is a model of interacting spins on a crystalline lattice. By studying the Potts model, one may gain insight into the behaviour of ferromagnets and certain other phenomena of solid-state physics.
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Invariant polynomial
In mathematics, an invariant polynomial is a polynomial that is invariant under a group acting on a vector space . Therefore is a -invariant polynomial if for all and . Cases of particular importance are for ¿ a finite group (in the theory of Molien series, in particular), a compact group, a Lie group or algebraic group. For a basis-independent definition of 'polynomial' nothing is lost by referring to the symmetric powers of the given linear representation of ¿.
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Statistical physics
Statistical physics is the branch of physics that uses methods of probability theory and statistics, and particularly the mathematical tools for dealing with large populations and approximations, in solving physical problems. It can describe a wide variety of fields with an inherently stochastic nature. Its applications include many problems in the fields of physics, biology, chemistry, neurology, and even some social sciences, such as sociology.
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