In mathematics, a bounded sequence {s1, s2, s3, ¿} of real numbers is said to be equidistributed, or uniformly distributed, if the proportion of terms falling in a subinterval is proportional to the length of that interval. Such sequences are studied in Diophantine approximation theory and have applications to Monte Carlo integration.
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Periodic function
In mathematics, a periodic function is a function that repeats its values in regular intervals or periods. The most important examples are the trigonometric functions, which repeat over intervals of length 2¿ radians. Periodic functions are used throughout science to describe oscillations, waves, and other phenomena that exhibit periodicity. Any function which is not periodic is called aperiodic.
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Order (group theory)
In group theory, a branch of mathematics, the term order is used in two closely related senses: The order of a group is its cardinality, i.e. , the number of elements in its set. The order, sometimes period, of an element a of a group is the smallest positive integer m such that a = e (where e denotes the identity element of the group, and a denotes the product of m copies of a). If no such m exists, a is said to have infinite order. All elements of finite groups have finite order.
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Generating set of a group
In abstract algebra, a generating set of a group is a subset that is not contained in any proper subgroup of the group. Equivalently, a generating set of a group is a subset such that every element of the group can be expressed as the combination (under the group operation) of finitely many elements of the subset and their inverses.
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Upper and lower bounds
In mathematics, especially in order theory, an upper bound of a subset S of some partially ordered set (P, ¿) is an element of P which is greater than or equal to every element of S. The term lower bound is defined dually as an element of P which is less than or equal to every element of S. A set with an upper bound is said to be bounded from above by that bound, a set with a lower bound is said to be bounded from below by that bound.
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Student's t-distribution
In probability and statistics, Student¿s t-distribution (or simply the t-distribution) is a family of continuous probability distributions that arises when estimating the mean of a normally distributed population in situations where the sample size is small and population standard deviation is unknown.
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Italic type
In typography, italic type is a cursive typeface based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting. Owing to the influence from calligraphy, such typefaces often slant slightly to the right. Different glyph shapes from roman type are also usually used¿another influence from calligraphy. True italics are therefore distinct from oblique type, in which the font is merely distorted into a slanted orientation.
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