Concepts inHigher-order functors with transparent signatures
Standard ML
Standard ML (SML) is a general-purpose, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference. It is popular among compiler writers and programming language researchers, as well as in the development of theorem provers. SML is a modern descendant of the ML programming language used in the Logic for Computable Functions (LCF) theorem-proving project.
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Semantics
Semantics (from Greek: sēmantiká, neuter plural of sēmantikós) is the study of meaning. It focuses on the relation between signifiers, such as words, phrases, signs and symbols, and what they stand for, their denotata. Linguistic semantics is the study of meaning that is used to understand human expression through language. Other forms of semantics include the semantics of programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.
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First-order logic
First-order logic is a formal system used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science. It is also known as first-order predicate calculus, the lower predicate calculus, quantification theory, and predicate logic (a less precise term). First-order logic is distinguished from propositional logic by its use of quantified variables.
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Functor
In category theory, a branch of mathematics, a functor is a special type of mapping between categories. Functors can be thought of as homomorphisms between categories, or morphisms when in the category of small categories. Functors were first considered in algebraic topology, where algebraic objects are associated to topological spaces, and algebraic homomorphisms are associated to continuous maps. Nowadays, functors are used throughout modern mathematics to relate various categories.
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Data type
In certain technical fields, a data type is a classification identifying one of various types of data, such as real-valued, integer or Boolean, that determines the possible values for that type; the operations that can be done on values of that type; the meaning of the data; and the way values of that type can be stored.
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Standard ML of New Jersey
Standard ML of New Jersey (SML/NJ) is a compiler and programming environment for Standard ML. Aside from its runtime system, which is written in C, SML/NJ is written in Standard ML. It was developed jointly by Bell Laboratories and Princeton University. Its name is a reference both to Princeton's home state and to Standard Oil of New Jersey, the famous oil monopoly of the early 20th century.
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Programming language
A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely. The earliest programming languages predate the invention of the computer, and were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos.
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Modular programming
Modular programming (also known as top down design and stepwise refinement) is a software design technique that increases the extent to which software is composed of separate, interchangeable components called modules by breaking down program functions into modules, each of which accomplishes one function and contains everything necessary to accomplish this.
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