The column rank of a matrix A is the maximum number of linearly independent column vectors of A. The row rank of a matrix A is the maximum number of linearly independent row vectors of A. Equivalently, the column rank of A is the dimension of the column space of A, while the row rank of A is the dimension of the row space of A. A result of fundamental importance in linear algebra is that the column rank and the row rank are always equal (see below for proofs). This number (i.e.
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Combination
In mathematics a combination is a way of selecting several things out of a larger group, where order does not matter. In smaller cases it is possible to count the number of combinations. For example given three fruit, say an apple, orange and pear, there are three combinations of two that can be drawn from this set: an apple and a pear; an apple and an orange; or a pear and an orange. More formally a k-combination of a set S is a subset of k distinct elements of S.
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Vector space
A vector space is a mathematical structure formed by a collection of elements called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars in this context. Scalars are often taken to be real numbers, but there are also vector spaces with scalar multiplication by complex numbers, rational numbers, or generally any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called axioms, listed below.
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Tuple
In mathematics and computer science, a tuple is an ordered list of elements. In set theory, an (ordered) -tuple is a sequence (or ordered list) of elements, where is a positive integer. There is also one 0-tuple, an empty sequence. An -tuple is defined inductively using the construction of an ordered pair. Tuples are usually written by listing the elements within parentheses "" and separated by commas; for example, denotes a 5-tuple.
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Feature vector
In pattern recognition and machine learning, a feature vector is an n-dimensional vector of numerical features that represent some object. Many algorithms in machine learning require a numerical representation of objects, since such representations facilitate processing and statistical analysis. When representing images, the feature values might correspond to the pixels of an image, when representing texts perhaps to term occurrence frequencies.
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Mathematical optimization
In mathematics, computer science, or management science, mathematical optimization (alternatively, optimization or mathematical programming) refers to the selection of a best element from some set of available alternatives. In the simplest case, an optimization problem consists of maximizing or minimizing a real function by systematically choosing input values from within an allowed set and computing the value of the function.
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