In computer science, records (also called tuples, structs, or compound data) are among the simplest data structures. A record is a value that contains other values, typically in fixed number and sequence and typically indexed by names. The elements of records are usually called fields or members. For example, a date could be stored as a record containing a numeric year field, a month field represented as a string, and a numeric day-of-month field.
more from Wikipedia
Big O notation
In mathematics, big O notation is used to describe the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity, usually in terms of simpler functions. It is a member of a larger family of notations that is called Landau notation, Bachmann–Landau notation, or asymptotic notation. In computer science, big O notation is used to classify algorithms by how they respond (e.g. , in their processing time or working space requirements) to changes in input size.
more from Wikipedia
Time complexity
In computer science, the time complexity of an algorithm quantifies the amount of time taken by an algorithm to run as a function of the size of the input to the problem. The time complexity of an algorithm is commonly expressed using big O notation, which suppresses multiplicative constants and lower order terms. When expressed this way, the time complexity is said to be described asymptotically, i.e. , as the input size goes to infinity.
more from Wikipedia
Randomness
Randomness has somewhat differing meanings as used in various fields. It also has common meanings which are connected to the notion of predictability (or lack thereof) of events. The Oxford English Dictionary defines 'random' as "Having no definite aim or purpose; not sent or guided in a particular direction; made, done, occurring, etc. , without method or conscious choice; haphazard.
more from Wikipedia
Set (mathematics)
A set is a collection of well defined and distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right. Sets are one of the most fundamental concepts in mathematics. Developed at the end of the 19th century, set theory is now a ubiquitous part of mathematics, and can be used as a foundation from which nearly all of mathematics can be derived.
more from Wikipedia
Bracket
Brackets are tall punctuation marks used in matched pairs within text, to set apart or interject other text. Used unqualified, brackets refer to different types of brackets in different parts of the world and in different contexts.
more from Wikipedia
Italic type
In typography, italic type is a cursive typeface based on a stylized form of calligraphic handwriting. Owing to the influence from calligraphy, such typefaces often slant slightly to the right. Different glyph shapes from roman type are also usually used—another influence from calligraphy. True italics are therefore distinct from oblique type, in which the font is merely distorted into a slanted orientation.
more from Wikipedia
Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm Listen/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ (originating from al-Khwārizmī, the famous mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī) is a step-by-step procedure for calculations. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning. More precisely, an algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function.
more from Wikipedia