In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which, intuitively, "small" changes in the input result in "small" changes in the output. Otherwise, a function is said to be "discontinuous". A continuous function with a continuous inverse function is called "bicontinuous". Continuity of functions is one of the core concepts of topology, which is treated in full generality below.
more from Wikipedia
Deformation (engineering)
In materials science, deformation is a change in the shape or size of an object due to an applied force (the deformation energy in this case is transferred through work) or a change in temperature (the deformation energy in this case is transferred through heat). The first case can be a result of tensile (pulling) forces, compressive (pushing) forces, shear, bending or torsion (twisting).
more from Wikipedia
Collision response
In the context of classical mechanics simulations and physics engines employed within video games, collision response deals with models and algorithms for simulating the changes in the motion of two solid bodies following collision and other forms of contact.
more from Wikipedia
Force
In physics, a force is any influence that causes an object to undergo a certain change, either concerning its movement, direction, or geometrical construction. In other words, a force is that which can cause an object with mass to change its velocity (which includes to begin moving from a state of rest), i.e. , to accelerate, or which can cause a flexible object to deform. Force can also be described by intuitive concepts such as a push or pull.
more from Wikipedia
Computer simulation
A computer simulation, a computer model, or a computational model is a computer program, or network of computers, that attempts to simulate an abstract model of a particular system. Computer simulations have become a useful part of mathematical modeling of many natural systems in physics, astrophysics, chemistry and biology, human systems in economics, psychology, social science, and engineering. Simulation of a system is represented as the running of the system's model.
more from Wikipedia
Penalty method
Penalty methods are a certain class of algorithms for solving constrained optimization problems. A penalty method replaces a constrained optimization problem by a series of unconstrained problems whose solutions ideally converge to the solution of the original constrained problem. The unconstrained problems are formed by adding a term to the objective function that consists of a penalty parameter and a measure of violation of the constraints.
more from Wikipedia
Closed-form expression
In mathematics, an expression is said to be a closed-form expression if it can be expressed analytically in terms of a finite number of certain "well-known" functions. Typically, these well-known functions are defined to be elementary functions¿constants, one variable x, elementary operations of arithmetic (+ ¿ × ÷), nth roots, exponent and logarithm (which thus also include trigonometric functions and inverse trigonometric functions).
more from Wikipedia