Concepts inPrinting floating-point numbers quickly and accurately
Floating point
In computing, floating point describes a method of representing real numbers in a way that can support a wide range of values. Numbers are, in general, represented approximately to a fixed number of significant digits and scaled using an exponent. The base for the scaling is normally 2, 10 or 16.
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Printing
Printing is a process for reproducing text and images, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing. The development of printing was preceded by the use of cylinder seals in Mesopotamia developed in 3500 B.C. , and other related stamp seals. The earliest form of printing was woodblock printing, with existing examples from China dating to before 220 A.D.
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Rounding
Rounding a numerical value means replacing it by another value that is approximately equal but has a shorter, simpler, or more explicit representation; for example, replacing $23.4476 with $23.45, or the fraction 312/937 with 1/3, or the expression ¿2 with 1.414. Rounding is often done on purpose to obtain a value that is easier to write and handle than the original.
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Numerical digit
A digit is a symbol (a numeral symbol such as "3" or "7") used in combinations (such as "37") to represent numbers in positional numeral systems. The name "digit" comes from the fact that the 10 digits (ancient Latin digita meaning fingers) of the hands correspond to the 10 symbols of the common base 10 number system, i.e. the decimal (ancient Latin adjective dec. meaning ten) digits.
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Free-form language
In computer programming, a free-form language is a programming language in which the positioning of characters on the page in program text is insignificant. Program text does not need to be placed in specific columns as on old punched card systems, and frequently ends of lines are insignificant. Whitespace characters are used only to delimit tokens, and have no other significance. Most free-form languages descend from ALGOL, including C, Pascal, and Perl.
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String (computer science)
In formal languages, which are used in mathematical logic and theoretical computer science, a string is a finite sequence of symbols that are chosen from a set called an alphabet. In computer programming, a string is traditionally a sequence of characters, either as a literal constant or as some kind of variable. The latter may allow its elements to be mutated and/or the length changed, or it may be fixed (after creation).
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Estimator
In statistics, an estimator is a rule for calculating an estimate of a given quantity based on observed data: thus the rule and its result (the estimate) are distinguished. There are point and interval estimators. The point estimators yield single-valued results, although this includes the possibility of single vector-valued results and results that can be expressed as a single function.
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