Concepts inParameterized Bounded-Depth Frege Is not Optimal
Parameterized complexity
In computer science, parameterized complexity is a branch of computational complexity theory that focuses on classifying computational problems according to their inherent difficulty with respect to multiple parameters of the input. The complexity of a problem is then measured as a function in those parameters. This allows to classify NP-hard problems on a finer scale than in the classical setting, where the complexity of a problem is only measured by the number of bits in the input.
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Proof complexity
In computer science, proof complexity is a measure of efficiency of automated theorem proving methods that is based on the size of the proofs they produce. The methods for proving contradiction in propositional logic are the most analyzed. The two main issues considered in proof complexity are whether a proof method can produce a polynomial proof of every inconsistent formula, and whether the proofs produced by one method are always of size similar to those produced by another method.
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Pigeonhole principle
In mathematics, the pigeonhole principle states that if n items are put into m pigeonholes with n > m, then at least one pigeonhole must contain more than one item. This theorem is exemplified in real-life by truisms like "there must be at least two left gloves or two right gloves in a group of three gloves".
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DPLL algorithm
The Davis¿Putnam¿Logemann¿Loveland (DPLL) algorithm is a complete, backtracking-based search algorithm for deciding the satisfiability of propositional logic formulae in conjunctive normal form, i.e. for solving the CNF-SAT problem. It was introduced in 1962 by Martin Davis, Hilary Putnam, George Logemann and Donald W. Loveland and is a refinement of the earlier Davis¿Putnam algorithm, which is a resolution-based procedure developed by Davis and Putnam in 1960.
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Mathematical proof
In mathematics, a proof is a demonstration that if some fundamental statements are assumed to be true, then some mathematical statement is necessarily true. Proofs are obtained from deductive reasoning, rather than from inductive or empirical arguments; a proof must demonstrate that a statement is always true (occasionally by listing all possible cases and showing that it holds in each), rather than enumerate many confirmatory cases.
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Theorem
In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and previously accepted statements, such as axioms. The derivation of a theorem is often interpreted as a proof of the truth of the resulting expression, but different deductive systems can yield other interpretations, depending on the meanings of the derivation rules.
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Upper and lower bounds
In mathematics, especially in order theory, an upper bound of a subset S of some partially ordered set (P, ¿) is an element of P which is greater than or equal to every element of S. The term lower bound is defined dually as an element of P which is less than or equal to every element of S. A set with an upper bound is said to be bounded from above by that bound, a set with a lower bound is said to be bounded from below by that bound.
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