Concepts inFairness on the web: alternatives to the power law
Power law
A power law is a mathematical relationship between two quantities. When the frequency of an event varies as a power of some attribute of that event (e.g. its size), the frequency is said to follow a power law. For instance, the number of cities having a certain population size is found to vary as a power of the size of the population, and hence follows a power law.
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World Wide Web
The World Wide Web (abbreviated as WWW or W3, commonly known as the Web, or the "Information Superhighway"), is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a web browser, one can view web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia, and navigate between them via hyperlinks.
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Degree distribution
In the study of graphs and networks, the degree of a node in a network is the number of connections it has to other nodes and the degree distribution is the probability distribution of these degrees over the whole network.
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Lorenz curve
In economics, the Lorenz curve is a graphical representation of the cumulative distribution function of the empirical probability distribution of wealth; it is a graph showing the proportion of the distribution assumed by the bottom y% of the values. It is often used to represent income distribution, where it shows for the bottom x% of households, what percentage y% of the total income they have. The percentage of households is plotted on the x-axis, the percentage of income on the y-axis.
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Complex network
In the context of network theory, a complex network is a graph (network) with non-trivial topological features¿features that do not occur in simple networks such as lattices or random graphs but often occur in real graphs. The study of complex networks is a young and active area of scientific research inspired largely by the empirical study of real-world networks such as computer networks and social networks.
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Degree (graph theory)
In graph theory, the degree (or valency) of a vertex of a graph is the number of edges incident to the vertex, with loops counted twice. The degree of a vertex is denoted The maximum degree of a graph G, denoted by ¿(G), and the minimum degree of a graph, denoted by ¿(G), are the maximum and minimum degree of its vertices. In the graph on the right, the maximum degree is 5 and the minimum degree is 0. In a regular graph, all degrees are the same, and so we can speak of the degree of the graph.
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Exponentiation
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as b, involving two numbers, the base b and the exponent (or index or power) n. When n is a positive integer, exponentiation corresponds to repeated multiplication; in other words, a product of n factors, each of which is equal to b (the product itself can also be called power): just as multiplication by a positive integer corresponds to repeated addition: The exponent is usually shown as a superscript to the right of the base.
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Social network
A social network is a social structure made up of a set of actors (such as individuals or organizations) and the dyadic ties between these actors. The social network perspective provides a clear way of analyzing the structure of whole social entities. The study of these structures uses methods of social network analysis to identify local and global patterns, locate influential entities, and examine network dynamics.
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