A set is a collection of well defined and distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right. Sets are one of the most fundamental concepts in mathematics. Developed at the end of the 19th century, set theory is now a ubiquitous part of mathematics, and can be used as a foundation from which nearly all of mathematics can be derived.
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Data
Data are values of qualitative or quantitative variables, belonging to a set of items. Data in computing are often represented by a combination of items organized in rows and multiple variables organized in columns. Data are typically the results of measurements and can be visualised using graphs or images. Data as an abstract concept can be viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived. Raw data, i.e.
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Program transformation
A program transformation is any operation that takes a computer program and generates another program. In many cases the transformed program is required to be semantically equivalent to the original, relative to a particular formal semantics and in fewer cases the transformations result in programs that semantically differ from the original in predictable ways.
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Real number
In mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a continuous line. The real numbers include all the rational numbers, such as the integer −5 and the fraction 4/3, and all the irrational numbers such as √2 and π. Real numbers can be thought of as points on an infinitely long line called the number line or real line, where the points corresponding to integers are equally spaced.
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Crew scheduling
Crew scheduling is the process of assigning crews to operate transportation systems, such as rail lines or aircraft.
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Value (mathematics)
In mathematics, value commonly refers to the output of a function. In the most basic case, that of unary, single-valued functions, there is one input and one output (the value of the function). A real-valued function is a function that associates to every element of the domain a real number in the image. Example: If the function is defined by prescribing that for each real number, then the input 3 will yield the function value 10 (since indeed {{{1}}}).
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Planning
Planning in organizations and public policy is both the organizational process of creating and maintaining a plan; and the psychological process of thinking about the activities required to create a desired goal on some scale. As such, it is a fundamental property of intelligent behavior.
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