In computing, floating point describes a method of representing real numbers in a way that can support a wide range of values. Numbers are, in general, represented approximately to a fixed number of significant digits and scaled using an exponent. The base for the scaling is normally 2, 10 or 16.
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Arithmetic
Arithmetic or arithmetics is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple day-to-day counting to advanced science and business calculations. It involves the study of quantity, especially as the result of operations that combine numbers. In common usage, it refers to the simpler properties when using the traditional operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with smaller values of numbers.
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Arithmetic logic unit
In computing, an arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) is a digital circuit that performs arithmetic and logical operations. The ALU is a fundamental building block of the central processing unit of a computer, and even the simplest microprocessors contain one for purposes such as maintaining timers. The processors found inside modern CPUs and graphics processing units accommodate very powerful and very complex ALUs; a single component may contain a number of ALUs.
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Propagation of uncertainty
In statistics, propagation of uncertainty (or propagation of error) is the effect of variables' uncertainties on the uncertainty of a function based on them. When the variables are the values of experimental measurements they have uncertainties due to measurement limitations which propagate to the combination of variables in the function. The uncertainty is usually defined by the absolute error ¿x.
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Fractional part
All real numbers can be written in the form n + r where n is an integer and the remaining fractional part r is a nonnegative real number less than one. For a positive number written in decimal notation, the fractional part corresponds to the digits appearing after the decimal point. The fractional part of a real number x is, where is the floor function. It is sometimes denoted or .
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Statistical model
A statistical model is a formalization of relationships between variables in the form of mathematical equations. A statistical model describes how one or more random variables are related to one or more random variables. The model is statistical as the variables are not deterministically but stochastically related. In mathematical terms, a statistical model is frequently thought of as a pair where is the set of possible observations and the set of possible probability distributions on .
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