A type system associates a type with each computed value. By examining the flow of these values, a type system attempts to ensure or prove that no type errors can occur. The particular type system in question determines exactly what constitutes a type error, but in general the aim is to prevent operations expecting a certain kind of value being used with values for which that operation does not make sense; memory errors will also be prevented.
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ML (programming language)
ML is a general-purpose functional programming language developed by Robin Milner and others in the early 1970s at the University of Edinburgh, whose syntax is inspired by ISWIM. Historically, ML stands for metalanguage: it was conceived to develop proof tactics in the LCF theorem prover (whose language, pplambda, a combination of the first-order predicate calculus and the simply typed polymorphic lambda calculus, had ML as its metalanguage).
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Expression (mathematics)
In mathematics, an expression is a finite combination of symbols that is well-formed according to rules that depend on the context. Symbols can designate numbers, variables, operations, functions, and other mathematical symbols, as well as punctuation, symbols of grouping, and other syntactic symbols.
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¿-calculus
In theoretical computer science, the ¿-calculus (or pi-calculus) is a process calculus originally developed by Robin Milner, Joachim Parrow and David Walker as a continuation of work on the process calculus CCS. The ¿-calculus allows channel names to be communicated along the channels themselves, and in this way it is able to describe concurrent computations whose network configuration may change during the computation. The ¿-calculus is elegantly simple yet very expressive.
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Value (computer science)
In computer science, a value is an expression which cannot be evaluated any further. The members of a type are the values of that type. For example, the expression "1 + 2" is not a value as it can be reduced to the expression "3". This expression cannot be reduced any further (and is a member of the type Nat) and therefore is a value. The "value of a variable" is given by the corresponding mapping in the environment.
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Linear equation
A linear equation is an algebraic equation in which each term is either a constant or the product of a constant and (the first power of) a single variable. Linear equations can have one or more variables. Linear equations occur with great regularity in applied mathematics.
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Iterative method
In computational mathematics, an iterative method is a mathematical procedure that generates a sequence of improving approximate solutions for a class of problems. A specific implementation of an iterative method, including the termination criteria, is an algorithm of the iterative method. An iterative method is called convergent if the corresponding sequence converges for given initial approximations.
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