A bit (a contraction of binary digit) is the basic capacity of information in computing and telecommunications; a bit represents either 1 or 0 (one or zero) only. The representation may be implemented, in a variety of systems, by means of a two state device. In computing, a bit can be defined as a variable or computed quantity that can have only two possible values. These two values are often interpreted as binary digits and are usually denoted by the numerical digits 0 andĀ 1.
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Hash table
In computer science, a hash table or hash map is a data structure that uses a hash function to map identifying values, known as keys (e.g. , a person's name), to their associated values (e.g. , their telephone number). Thus, a hash table implements an associative array. The hash function is used to transform the key into the index (the hash) of an array element (the slot or bucket) where the corresponding value is to be sought.
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Word (computer architecture)
InĀ computing, word is a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular processor design. A word is basically a fixed sized group of bits that are handled as a unit by the instruction set and/or hardware of the processor. The number of bits in a word (the word size, word width, or word length) is an important characteristic of a specific processor design or computer architecture.
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Lookup table
In computer science, a lookup table is a data structure, usually an array or associative array, often used to replace a runtime computation with a simpler array indexing operation. The savings in terms of processing time can be significant, since retrieving a value from memory is often faster than undergoing an 'expensive' computation or input/output operation.
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In cryptography, a key is a piece of information that determines the functional output of a cryptographic algorithm or cipher. Without a key, the algorithm would produce no useful result. In encryption, a key specifies the particular transformation of plaintext into ciphertext, or vice versa during decryption. Keys are also used in other cryptographic algorithms, such as digital signature schemes and message authentication codes.
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Search algorithm
In computer science, a search algorithm is an algorithm for finding an item with specified properties among a collection of items. The items may be stored individually as records in a database; or may be elements of a search space defined by a mathematical formula or procedure, such as the roots of an equation with integer variables; or a combination of the two, such as the Hamiltonian circuits of a graph.
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Binary function
In mathematics, a binary function, or function of two variables, is a function which takes two inputs. Precisely stated, a function is binary if there exists sets such that where is the Cartesian product of and
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