A programming language is an artificial language designed to communicate instructions to a machine, particularly a computer. Programming languages can be used to create programs that control the behavior of a machine and/or to express algorithms precisely. The earliest programming languages predate the invention of the computer, and were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos.
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Purely functional
Purely functional is a term in computing used to describe algorithms, data structures or programming languages that exclude destructive modifications (updates). According to this restriction, variables are used in a mathematical sense, with identifiers referring to immutable, persistent values.
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Binary relation
In mathematics, a binary relation on a set A is a collection of ordered pairs of elements of A. In other words, it is a subset of the Cartesian product A = A × A. More generally, a binary relation between two sets A and B is a subset of A × B. The terms dyadic relation and 2-place relation are synonyms for binary relations.
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Software framework
In computer programming, a software framework is an abstraction in which software providing generic functionality can be selectively changed by user code, thus providing application specific software. A software framework is a universal, reusable software platform used to develop applications, products and solutions.
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Language family
A language family is group of languages related through descent from a common ancestor, called the proto-language of that family. The term 'family' comes from the tree model of language origination in historical linguistics, which makes use of a metaphor comparing languages to people in a biological family tree or in a subsequent modification to species in a phylogenetic tree of evolutionary taxonomy.
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Function (mathematics)
In mathematics, a function is a relation between a set of inputs and a set of potential outputs with the property that each input is related to exactly one output. An example of such a relation is defined by the rule f(x) = x, which relates an input x to its square, which are both real numbers. The output of the function f corresponding to an input x is denoted by f(x) (read "f of x"). If the input is ¿3, then the output is 9, and we may write f(¿3) = 9.
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