Concepts inAmerican standard code for information interchange
Genetic code
The genetic code is the set of rules by which information encoded in genetic material is translated into proteins by living cells. The code defines how sequences of three nucleotides, called codons, specify which amino acid will be added next during protein synthesis. With some exceptions, a three-nucleotide codon in a nucleic acid sequence specifies a single amino acid.
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Decimal
This article aims to be an accessible introduction. For the mathematical definition, see Decimal representation.
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Logarithm
The logarithm of a number is the exponent by which another fixed value, the base, has to be raised to produce that number. For example, the logarithm of 1000 to base 10 is 3, because 1000 is 10 to the power 3: 1000 = 10 = 10¿×¿10¿×¿10. More generally, if x = b, then y is the logarithm of x to base b, and is written logb(x), so log10(1000) = 3. Logarithms were introduced by John Napier in the early 17th century as a means to simplify calculations.
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Binary numeral system
The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, represents numeric values using two symbols: 0 and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its straightforward implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates, the binary system is used internally by almost all modern computers.
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Square root
In mathematics, a square root of a number a is a number y such that y = a, or, in other words, a number y whose square (the result of multiplying the number by itself, or y × y) is a. For example, 4 is a square root of 16 because 4 = 16. Every non-negative real number a has a unique non-negative square root, called the principal square root, which is denoted by, where ¿ is called radical sign. For example, the principal square root of 9 is 3, denoted, because {{{1}}} and 3 is non-negative.
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