An -extractor is a bipartite graph with nodes on the left and nodes on the right such that each node on the left has neighbors (on the right), which has the added property that for any subset of the left vertices of size at least, the distribution on right vertices obtained by choosing a random node in and then following a random edge to get a node x on the right side is -close to the uniform distribution in terms of total variation distance. A disperser is a related graph.
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Pseudorandom generator
In theoretical computer science and cryptography, a pseudorandom generator (PRG) for a class of statistical tests is a deterministic procedure that maps a random seed to a longer pseudorandom string such that no statistical test in the class can distinguish between the output of the generator and the uniform distribution. The random seed is typically a short binary string drawn from the uniform distribution.
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Avi Wigderson
Avi Wigderson is an Israeli mathematician and computer scientist, a professor of mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton. His research interests include complexity theory, parallel algorithms, graph theory, cryptography, distributed computing, and neural networks.
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Randomness extractor
A randomness extractor, often simply called "an extractor," is a function which, when applied to a high-entropy source, generates a random output that is shorter, but uniformly distributed. In other words, outputting a completely random sample from a semi-random input. The goal of this process is to generate a truly random output stream, which could then be considered as being a true random number generator.
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Cryptographically secure pseudorandom number generator
A cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator (CSPRNG) is a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) with properties that make it suitable for use in cryptography. Many aspects of cryptography require random numbers, for example: Key generation Nonces One-time pads Salts in certain signature schemes, including ECDSA, RSASSA-PSS. The "quality" of the randomness required for these applications varies. For example creating a nonce in some protocols needs only uniqueness.
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Uniform distribution (continuous)
In probability theory and statistics, the continuous uniform distribution or rectangular distribution is a family of probability distributions such that for each member of the family, all intervals of the same length on the distribution's support are equally probable. The support is defined by the two parameters, a and b, which are its minimum and maximum values. The distribution is often abbreviated U(a,b).
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Forward error correction
In telecommunication, information theory, and coding theory, forward error correction (FEC) or channel coding is a technique used for controlling errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels. The central idea is the sender encodes their message in a redundant way by using an error-correcting code (ECC). The American mathematician Richard Hamming pioneered this field in the 1940s and invented the first error-correcting code in 1950: the Hamming (7,4) code.
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