Concepts inAuthenticated-encryption with associated-data
OCB mode
OCB mode (Offset Codebook Mode) is a mode of operation for cryptographic block ciphers.
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Authenticated encryption
Authenticated Encryption (AE) is a block cipher mode of operation which simultaneously provides confidentiality, integrity and authenticity assurances on the data. It became readily apparent that securely compositing a confidentiality mode with an authentication mode could be error prone and difficult. As Bellare, Rogaway, and Wagner wrote in A Conventional Authenticated-Encryption Mode: ...
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PMAC (cryptography)
PMAC, which stands for Parallelizable MAC, is a message authentication code algorithm. It was created by Phillip Rogaway (patent pending). PMAC is a method of taking a block cipher and creating an efficient message authentication code that is provably reducible in security to the underlying block cipher. PMAC is similar in functionality to the OMAC algorithm.
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Cryptographic nonce
In security engineering, nonce is an arbitrary number used only once to sign a cryptographic communication. It is similar in spirit to a nonce word, hence the name. It is often a random or pseudo-random number issued in an authentication protocol to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks. For instance, nonces are used in HTTP digest access authentication to calculate an MD5 digest of the password.
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Pseudorandom function family
In cryptography, a pseudorandom function family, abbreviated PRF, is a collection of efficiently-computable functions which emulate a random oracle in the following way: no efficient algorithm can distinguish between a function chosen randomly from the PRF family and a random oracle (a function whose outputs are fixed completely at random). Pseudorandom functions are vital tools in the construction of cryptographic primitives, especially secure encryption schemes.
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Ciphertext
In cryptography, ciphertext (or cyphertext) is the result of encryption performed on plaintext using an algorithm, called a cipher. Ciphertext is also known as encrypted or encoded information because it contains a form of the original plaintext that is unreadable by a human or computer without the proper cipher to decrypt it. Decryption, the inverse of encryption, is the process of turning ciphertext into readable plaintext.
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Cryptography
Cryptography is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication in the presence of third parties. More generally, it is about constructing and analyzing protocols that overcome the influence of adversaries and which are related to various aspects in information security such as data confidentiality, data integrity, and authentication. Modern cryptography intersects the disciplines of mathematics, computer science, and electrical engineering.
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Encryption
In cryptography, encryption is the process of transforming information (referred to as plaintext) using an algorithm to make it unreadable to anyone except those possessing special knowledge, usually referred to as a key. The result of the process is encrypted information (in cryptography, referred to as ciphertext). The reverse process, i.e. , to make the encrypted information readable again, is referred to as decryption (i.e. , to make it unencrypted).
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