The logarithm of a number is the exponent by which another fixed value, the base, has to be raised to produce that number. For example, the logarithm of 1000 to base 10 is 3, because 1000 is 10 to the power 3: 1000 = 10 = 10 × 10 × 10. More generally, if x = b, then y is the logarithm of x to base b, and is written logb(x), so log10(1000) = 3. Logarithms were introduced by John Napier in the early 17th century as a means to simplify calculations.
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Fraction (mathematics)
A fraction represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, a fraction describes how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, five-eighths, three-quarters. A common or vulgar fraction, such as 1/2, 8/5, 3/4, consists of an integer numerator and a non-zero integer denominator—the numerator representing a number of equal parts and the denominator indicating how many of those parts make up a whole.
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Multiplicity (mathematics)
In mathematics, the multiplicity of a member of a multiset is the number of times it appears in the multiset. For example, the number of times a given polynomial equation has a root at a given point. The notion of multiplicity is important to be able to count correctly without specifying exceptions (for example, double roots counted twice). Hence the expression, "counted with (sometimes implicit) multiplicity".
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Integral
Integration is an important concept in mathematics and, together with its inverse, differentiation, is one of the two main operations in calculus. Given a function f of a real variable x and an interval [a, b] of the real line, the definite integral is defined informally to be the area of the region in the xy-plane bounded by the graph of f, the x-axis, and the vertical lines x = a and x = b, such that areas above the axis add to the total, and the area below the x axis subtract from the total.
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Algorithm
In mathematics and computer science, an algorithm Listen/ˈælɡərɪðəm/ (originating from al-Khwārizmī, the famous mathematician Muḥammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī) is a step-by-step procedure for calculations. Algorithms are used for calculation, data processing, and automated reasoning. More precisely, an algorithm is an effective method expressed as a finite list of well-defined instructions for calculating a function.
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Divisor
In mathematics, a divisor of an integer, also called a factor of, is an integer which divides without leaving a remainder.
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