Concepts inA knowledge-based analysis of zero knowledge
Zero-knowledge proof
In cryptography, a zero-knowledge proof or zero-knowledge protocol is an interactive method for one party to prove to another that a (usually mathematical) statement is true, without revealing anything other than the veracity of the statement.
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Mathematical analysis
Mathematical analysis, which mathematicians refer to simply as analysis, is a branch of pure mathematics that includes the theories of differentiation, integration and measure, limits, infinite series, and analytic functions. These theories are often studied in the context of real numbers, complex numbers, and real and complex functions. Analysis may be conventionally distinguished from geometry.
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Non-interactive zero-knowledge proof
Non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs are a variant of zero-knowledge proofs. Blum, Feldman, and Micali showed that a common reference string shared between the prover and the verifier is enough to achieve computational zero-knowledge without requiring interaction. Goldreich and Oren gave impossibility results for one shot zero-knowledge protocols in the standard model.
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Interactive proof system
In computational complexity theory, an interactive proof system is an abstract machine that models computation as the exchange of messages between two parties. The parties, the verifier and the prover, interact by exchanging messages in order to ascertain whether a given string belongs to a language or not. The prover is all-powerful and possesses unlimited computational resources, but cannot be trusted, while the verifier has bounded computation power.
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P (complexity)
In computational complexity theory, P, also known as PTIME or DTIME(n), is one of the most fundamental complexity classes. It contains all decision problems which can be solved by a deterministic Turing machine using a polynomial amount of computation time, or polynomial time.
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Epistemology
Epistemology Listen/¿¿p¿st¿¿m¿l¿d¿i/ is the branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. It addresses the questions: What is knowledge? How is knowledge acquired? To what extent is it possible for a given subject or entity to be known? Much of the debate in this field has focused on analyzing the nature of knowledge and how it relates to connected notions such as truth, belief, and justification.
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Formal verification
In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics . Complete formal verification is the only known way to guarantee that a system is free of programming errors. ¿ ¿ From abstract of paper presented to ACM symposium
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Formal system
A formal system is loosely speaking, any well defined system of abstract thought, on the model of mathematics. Technically, Euclid's elements, with a model consisting of 23 definitions and 10 postulates/axioms followed by 13 books of theorems with proof, is often held to be the first formal system and displays the characteristic of a formal system.
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