Radiance and spectral radiance are measures of the quantity of radiation that passes through or is emitted from a surface and falls within a given solid angle in a specified direction. They are used in radiometry to characterize diffuse emission and reflection of electromagnetic radiation. In astrophysics, radiance is also used to quantify emission of neutrinos and other particles.
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Matrix (mathematics)
In mathematics, a matrix (plural matrices, or less commonly matrixes) is a rectangular array of numbers, symbols, or expressions. The individual items in a matrix are called its elements or entries. An example of a matrix with six elements is Matrices of the same size can be added or subtracted element by element. The rule for matrix multiplication is more complicated, and two matrices can be multiplied only when the number of columns in the first equals the number of rows in the second.
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Precomputed Radiance Transfer
Precomputed Radiance Transfer (PRT) is a computer graphics technique used to render a scene in real time with complex light interactions being precomputed to save time. Radiosity methods can be used to determine the diffuse lighting of the scene, however PRT offers a method to dynamically change the lighting environment. In essence, PRT computes the illumination of a point as a linear combination of incident irradiance.
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Bidirectional reflectance distribution function
The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) is a four-dimensional function that defines how light is reflected at an opaque surface. The function takes an incoming light direction,, and outgoing direction,, both defined with respect to the surface normal, and returns the ratio of reflected radiance exiting along to the irradiance incident on the surface from direction .
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Self-shadowing
Self-Shadowing is a computer graphics lighting effect, used in 3D rendering applications such as computer animation and video games. Self-shadowing allows non-static objects in the environment, such as game characters and interactive objects (buckets, chairs, etc), to cast shadows on themselves and each other. For example, without self-shadowing, if a character puts his or her right arm over the left, the right arm will not cast a shadow over the left arm.
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Reflection mapping
In computer graphics, environment mapping, or reflection mapping, is an efficient image-based lighting technique for approximating the appearance of a reflective surface by means of a precomputed texture image. The texture is used to store the image of the distant environment surrounding the rendered object. Several ways of storing the surrounding environment are employed.
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Diffuse reflection
]] Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light from a surface such that an incident ray is reflected at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection. An illuminated ideal diffuse reflecting surface will have equal luminance from all directions in the hemisphere surrounding the surface.
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Dot product
In mathematics, the dot product' or scalar product is an algebraic operation that takes two equal-length sequences of numbers and returns a single number obtained by multiplying corresponding entries and then summing those products. The name "dot product" is derived from the centered dot " ' " that is often used to designate this operation; the alternative name "scalar product" emphasizes the scalar nature of the result.
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