In numerical analysis, the Runge¿Kutta methods are an important family of implicit and explicit iterative methods for the approximation of solutions of ordinary differential equations. These techniques were developed around 1900 by the German mathematicians C. Runge and M.W. Kutta. See the article on numerical ordinary differential equations for more background and other methods. See also List of Runge¿Kutta methods.
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Complex conjugate
In mathematics, complex conjugates are a pair of complex numbers, both having the same real part, but with imaginary parts of equal magnitude and opposite signs. For example, 3 + 4i and 3 ¿ 4i are complex conjugates. The conjugate of the complex number where and are real numbers, is For example, An alternative notation for the complex conjugate is .
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Jacobian matrix and determinant
In vector calculus, the Jacobian matrix is the matrix of all first-order partial derivatives of a vector- or scalar-valued function with respect to another vector. Suppose F : R ¿ R is a function from Euclidean n-space to Euclidean m-space. Such a function is given by m real-valued component functions, F1(x1,... ,xn), ... , Fm(x1,... ,xn).
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Stability theory
In mathematics, stability theory addresses the stability of solutions of differential equations and of trajectories of dynamical systems under small perturbations of initial conditions. The heat equation, for example, is a stable partial differential equation because small perturbations of initial data lead to small variations in temperature at a later time as a result of the maximum principle.
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Eigenvalues and eigenvectors
The eigenvectors of a square matrix are the non-zero vectors that, after being multiplied by the matrix, remain parallel to the original vector. For each eigenvector, the corresponding eigenvalue is the factor by which the eigenvector is scaled when multiplied by the matrix. The prefix eigen- is adopted from the German word "eigen" for "self" in the sense of a characteristic description. The eigenvectors are sometimes also called characteristic vectors.
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