In computer science, random access machine (RAM) is an abstract machine in the general class of register machines. The RAM is very similar to the counter machine but with the added capability of 'indirect addressing' of its registers. Like the counter machine the RAM has its instructions in the finite-state portion of the machine.
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Parallel computing
Parallel computing is a form of computation in which many calculations are carried out simultaneously, operating on the principle that large problems can often be divided into smaller ones, which are then solved concurrently ("in parallel"). There are several different forms of parallel computing: bit-level, instruction level, data, and task parallelism.
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A Turing machine is a device that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite its simplicity, a Turing machine can be adapted to simulate the logic of any computer algorithm, and is particularly useful in explaining the functions of a CPU inside a computer. The "Turing" machine was described by Alan Turing in 1936, who called it an "a(utomatic)-machine".
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Model of computation
In computability theory and computational complexity theory, a model of computation is the definition of the set of allowable operations used in computation and their respective costs. It is used for measuring the complexity of an algorithm in execution time and or memory space: by assuming a certain model of computation, it is possible to analyze the computational resources required or to discuss the limitations of algorithms or computers.
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Time complexity
In computer science, the time complexity of an algorithm quantifies the amount of time taken by an algorithm to run as a function of the size of the input to the problem. The time complexity of an algorithm is commonly expressed using big O notation, which suppresses multiplicative constants and lower order terms. When expressed this way, the time complexity is said to be described asymptotically, i.e. , as the input size goes to infinity.
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Random-access memory
Random access memory (RAM) is a form of computer data storage. Today, it takes the form of integrated circuits that allow stored data to be accessed in any order with a worst case performance of constant time. Strictly speaking, modern types of DRAM are not random access, as data is read in bursts, although the name DRAM / RAM has stuck. However, many types of SRAM, ROM, OTP, and NOR flash are still random access even in a strict sense.
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Polynomial
In mathematics, a polynomial is an expression of finite length constructed from variables and constants, using only the operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and non-negative integer exponents. For example, x ¿ x/4 + 7 is a polynomial, but x ¿ 4/x + 7x is not, because its second term involves division by the variable x (4/x), and also because its third term contains an exponent that is not an integer (3/2).
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