In mathematics, reduction refers to the rewriting of an expression into a simpler form. For example, the process of rewriting a fraction into one with the smallest whole-number denominator possible (while keeping the numerator an integer) is called "reducing a fraction". Rewriting a radical (or "root") expression with the smallest possible whole number under the radical symbol is called "reducing a radical".
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Interior point method
Interior point methods (also referred to as barrier methods) are a certain class of algorithms to solve linear and nonlinear convex optimization problems. The interior point method was invented by John von Neumann. Von Neumann suggested a new method of linear programming, using the homogeneous linear system of Gordan (1873) which was later popularized by Karmarkar's algorithm, developed by Narendra Karmarkar in 1984 for linear programming.
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Vector space
A vector space is a mathematical structure formed by a collection of elements called vectors, which may be added together and multiplied ("scaled") by numbers, called scalars in this context. Scalars are often taken to be real numbers, but there are also vector spaces with scalar multiplication by complex numbers, rational numbers, or generally any field. The operations of vector addition and scalar multiplication must satisfy certain requirements, called axioms, listed below.
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Operator (mathematics)
In basic mathematics, an operator is a symbol or function representing a mathematical operation. In terms of vector spaces, an operator is a mapping from one vector space or module to another. Operators are of critical importance to both linear algebra and functional analysis, and they find application in many other fields of pure and applied mathematics.
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Locality of reference
In computer science, locality of reference, also known as the principle of locality, is the phenomenon of the same value or related storage locations being frequently accessed. There are two basic types of reference locality. Temporal locality refers to the reuse of specific data and/or resources within relatively small time durations. Spatial locality refers to the use of data elements within relatively close storage locations.
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Abstraction (computer science)
In computer science, abstraction is the process by which data and programs are defined with a representation similar in form to its meaning, while hiding away the implementation details. Abstraction tries to reduce and factor out details so that the programmer can focus on a few concepts at a time. A system can have several abstraction layers whereby different meanings and amounts of detail are exposed to the programmer.
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