Parameter (from Ancient Greek παρά also “para” meaning “beside, subsidiary” and μέτρον also “metron” meaning “measure”) can be interpreted in mathematics, logic, linguistics, environmental science and other disciplines. In its common meaning, the term is used to identify a characteristic, a feature, a measurable factor that can help in defining a particular system.
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Linear algebra
Linear algebra is the branch of mathematics concerning finite or countably infinite dimensional vector spaces, as well as linear mappings between such spaces. Such an investigation is initially motivated by a system of linear equations in several unknowns. Such equations are naturally represented using the formalism of matrices and vectors. Linear algebra is central to both pure and applied mathematics.
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Linear regression
In statistics, linear regression is an approach to modeling the relationship between a scalar dependent variable y and one or more explanatory variables denoted X. The case of one explanatory variable is called simple regression. More than one explanatory variable is multiple regression. (This in turn should be distinguished from multivariate linear regression, where multiple correlated dependent variables are predicted, rather than a single scalar variable.
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Set (mathematics)
A set is a collection of well defined and distinct objects, considered as an object in its own right. Sets are one of the most fundamental concepts in mathematics. Developed at the end of the 19th century, set theory is now a ubiquitous part of mathematics, and can be used as a foundation from which nearly all of mathematics can be derived.
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Hyperplane
A hyperplane is a concept in geometry. It is a generalization of the plane into a different number of dimensions. A hyperplane of an n-dimensional space is a flat subset with dimension n − 1. By its nature, it separates the space into two half spaces.
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Estimator
In statistics, an estimator is a rule for calculating an estimate of a given quantity based on observed data: thus the rule and its result (the estimate) are distinguished. There are point and interval estimators. The point estimators yield single-valued results, although this includes the possibility of single vector-valued results and results that can be expressed as a single function.
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Point (geometry)
In geometry, topology, and related branches of mathematics, a spatial point is a primitive notion upon which other concepts may be defined. In geometry, points are zero-dimensional; i.e. , they do not have volume, area, length, or any other higher-dimensional analogue. In branches of mathematics dealing with set theory, an element is sometimes referred to as a point.
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Robust statistics
Robust statistics provides an alternative approach to standard statistical methods, such as those for estimating location, scale and regression parameters. The motivation is to produce estimators that are not unduly affected by small departures from the model assumptions under which these standard methods are usually derived: the standard methods are comparatively badly affected.
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