In statistics and probability theory, median is described as the numerical value separating the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. The median of a finite list of numbers can be found by arranging all the observations from lowest value to highest value and picking the middle one. If there is an even number of observations, then there is no single middle value; the median is then usually defined to be the mean of the two middle values.
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Linear regression
In statistics, linear regression is an approach to modeling the relationship between a scalar dependent variable y and one or more explanatory variables denoted X. The case of one explanatory variable is called simple regression. More than one explanatory variable is multiple regression. (This in turn should be distinguished from multivariate linear regression, where multiple correlated dependent variables are predicted, rather than a single scalar variable.
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Robust statistics
Robust statistics provides an alternative approach to standard statistical methods, such as those for estimating location, scale and regression parameters. The motivation is to produce estimators that are not unduly affected by small departures from the model assumptions under which these standard methods are usually derived: the standard methods are comparatively badly affected.
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Estimator
In statistics, an estimator is a rule for calculating an estimate of a given quantity based on observed data: thus the rule and its result (the estimate) are distinguished. There are point and interval estimators. The point estimators yield single-valued results, although this includes the possibility of single vector-valued results and results that can be expressed as a single function.
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Hyperplane
A hyperplane is a concept in geometry. It is a generalization of the plane into a different number of dimensions. A hyperplane of an n-dimensional space is a flat subset with dimension n ¿ 1. By its nature, it separates the space into two half spaces.
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Bounded set
"Bounded" and "boundary" are distinct concepts; for the latter see boundary (topology). A circle in isolation is a boundaryless bounded set, while the half plane is unbounded yet has a boundary. In mathematical analysis and related areas of mathematics, a set is called bounded, if it is, in a certain sense, of finite size. Conversely, a set which is not bounded is called unbounded. The word bounded makes no sense in a general topological space, without a metric.
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