BOOKMARK & SHARE
Author Profile Pages:
Author Profile Page initially collects all the professional information known
about authors from the publications record as known by the ACM bibliographic
Guide. Coverage of ACM publications is comprehensive from the 1950's.
Coverage of other publishers generally starts in the mid 1980's. The Author
Profile Page supplies a quick snapshot of an author's contribution to the field
and some rudimentary measures of influence upon it. Over time, the contents of
the Author Profile page may expand at the direction of the community.
Please see the following 2007 Turing Award winners' profiles as examples:
Edmund M Clarke
E Allen Emerson
Disambiguation of author names is of course required for precise identification
of all the works, and only those works, by a unique individual. Of equal
importance to ACM, author name normalization is also one critical prerequisite
to building accurate citation and download statistics. For the past several
years, ACM has worked to normalize author names, expand reference capture, and
gather detailed usage statistics, all intended to provide the community with a
robust set of publication metrics. The Author Profile Pages reveal the first
result of these efforts.
Normalization: ACM uses normalization algorithms to weigh several types of
evidence for merging and splitting names. These include:
co-authors: if we
have two names and cannot disambiguate them based on name alone, then we see if
they have a co-author in common. If so, this weighs towards the two names being
the same person.
in common with same affiliation weighs toward the two names being the same
title: names in common whose works are
published in same journal weighs toward the two names being the same
in common whose works address the same subject matter as determined from title
and keywords, weigh toward being the same person.
The more conservative the merging
algorithms, the more bits of evidence are required before a merge is made,
resulting in greater precision but lower recall of works for a given Author
Profile. Many bibliographic records have only author initials. Many names lack
affiliations. With very common family names, typical in Asia, more liberal algorithms result in mistaken
Automatic normalization of author names is
not exact. Hence it is clear that manual intervention based on human knowledge
is required to perfect algorithmic results. ACM is meeting this challenge,
continuing to work to improve the automated merges by tweaking the weighting of
the evidence in light of experience.
1926, Alfred Lotka formulated his power law (known as Lotka's Law) describing
the frequency of publication by authors in a given field. According to this bibliometric
law of scientific productivity, only a very small percentage (~6%) of authors
in a field will produce more than 10 articles while the majority (perhaps 60%)
will have but a single article published. With ACM's first cut at author name
normalization in place, the distribution of our authors with 1, 2, 3..n publications
does not match Lotka's Law precisely, but neither is the distribution curve far
off. For a definition of ACM's first set of publication statistics, see Bibliometrics.
Direction: The initial release of the
Author Edit Screen is open to anyone in the community with an ACM account, but
it is limited to personal information. An author's photograph, a Home Page URL,
and an email may be added, deleted or edited. Changes are reviewed before they
are made available on the live site.
ACM will expand this edit facility
to accommodate more types of data and facilitate ease of community participation
with appropriate safeguards. In particular, authors or members of the community
will be able to indicate works in their profile that do not belong there and
merge others that do belong but are currently
A direct search interface for
Author Profiles will be built.
An institutional view of works
emerging from their faculty and researchers will be provided along with a
relevant set of metrics.
It is possible, too, that the
Author Profile page may evolve to allow interested authors to upload unpublished
professional materials to an area available for search and free educational use,
but distinct from the ACM Digital Library proper. It is hard to predict what shape such an
area for user-generated content may take, but it carries interesting potential
for input from the community.